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Flashcards in History of Psychopathology Deck (48):
1

Treatments in ancient history (supernatural tradition)

Trephination (drill hole in skull)
Appeal to gods

2

Treatments in dark ages (supernatural tradition)

Exorcism
Torture (spinning chair, sensory deprivation chair, put in snake pits, douse with cold water, etc.)

3

Malleus Maleficarum

"The Witches' Hammer"
Reference tool for investigators of witches and demons
Precursor for Salem witch trials

4

Theory of 4 humors

Normal if all were equally balanced, but caused problems if one was out of whack

5

Blood (4 humors)

Excess caused excessive happiness

6

Black bile (4 humors)

Excess caused depression

7

Yellow bile (4 humors)

Excess caused irritability

8

Phlegm (4 humors)

Excess caused apathy

9

Wandering uterus

Ancient Greek theory of mental illness in women
When uterus goes to place in body, causes problems there

10

Deception of Demons

Renaissance book that emphasized observation and understanding of mental illness rather than torture

11

Philippe Pinel

Advocated humane treatment of mentally ill
Moral therapy: give people individual rooms, give them things to do (art, etc.)

12

Dorthea Dix

Mental hygiene movement (advocating for humane treatment)
Basically American version of Pinel

13

Syphilis

Advanced form of disease: general paresis (confusion, delirium, hallucinations)
Understanding of disease (bacterial infection) gave rise to discovery that mental symptoms can be caused by physical illness

14

Emil Kraeplin

Developed classification system for mental disorders, which led to ability to diagnose

15

Prevalence

How many people have disorder

16

Incidence

How many new people develop disorder

17

Course

Pattern of development and change in a disorder

18

Prognosis

Anticipated course of disorder

19

Etiology

Cause or set of causes for disorder

20

Prevention

Efforts to decrease incidence of disorder

21

Wilhelm Wundt

Father of psychology
Had first psych lab in Leipzig, Germany

22

Psychoanalysis

Developed by Freud
1st theory to explain abnormal behavior
Conscious vs. unconscious: unconscious controls person (can't ever be aware of unconscious)

23

Id

Pleasure portion of unconscious in psychoanalysis
Immediate gratification

24

Superego

Morality portion of unconscious in psychoanalysis

25

Ego

Mediator between id and superego
Balances the two (too much id: narcissism; too much superego: anxiety)

26

Denial

Defense mechanism in psychoanalysis
Not admitting painful truth

27

Displacement

Defense mechanism in psychoanalysis
Taking out feelings of anger on safer target

28

Projection

Defense mechanism in psychoanalysis
Project own feelings onto others

29

Rationalization

Defense mechanism in psychoanalysis
Provide a plausible, but inaccurate reason for behavior

30

Reaction formation

Defense mechanism in psychoanalysis
Harbor deep-seated feelings inside, but overcompensate in opposite direction

31

Repression

Defense mechanism in psychoanalysis
Unconsciously forget painful experiences

32

Regression

Defense mechanism in psychoanalysis
Slipping back into infantile behavior

33

Sublimation

Defense mechanism in psychoanalysis
Channel negative feelings into creative medium

34

Psychosexual stages

Oral
Anal
Phallic
Latency
Genital

35

Oral stage

Psychoanalysis
Task: weaning
Fixation: constant need for something in the mouth

36

Anal stage

Psychoanalysis
Task: toilet training
Fixation: anal retentive (perfectionistic) or anal expulsive (sloppy)

37

Phallic stage

Psychoanalysis
Task: recognition of male vs. female and development of same-sex role model

38

Latency stage

Psychoanalysis
Task: watching same-sex parent (late pre-teens)

39

Genital stage

Psychoanalysis
Task: creating intimate relationships
Fixation: don't get married

40

Classical conditioning

Unconditioned stimulus is paired with conditioned stimulus: after repeated pairings, conditioned stimulus elicits response previously associated with unconditioned stimulus

41

Positive reinforcement

Operant conditioning
Adding something
Results in increase in behavior

42

Negative reinforcement

Operant conditioning
Taking something away
Results in increase in behavior

43

Positive punishment

Operant conditioning
Adding something
Results in decrease in behavior

44

Negative punishment

Operant conditioning
Taking something away
Results in decrease in behavior

45

Vicarious conditioning

Behaviors can be learned by observing others

46

Cognitive theory

Thoughts are critical
Beliefs about world and self
Automatic thoughts
Interpretations (depend on context): most important part of theory

47

Humanism

Self actualization: innate capacity for growth
Issues arise when mismatch between current self and ideal self
People will blossom if put in proper environment and provided with proper support system

48

Defining abnormal

Norm violation
Statistical rarity
Personal discomfort
Maladaptive behavior