Substance Use Disorders Flashcards Preview

Abnormal Psychology > Substance Use Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Substance Use Disorders Deck (41):
1

Psychoactive substance

Substance that when ingested alters mood, thoughts, or behavior

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Substance use

Using substances in controlled manner

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Tolerance

Requiring more of substance to get same effect

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Withdrawal

Symptoms that develop after stopping use of a substance after chronic use

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Substance intoxication

A reversible syndrome due to recent ingestion of a psychoactive substance
Physiological, behavioral, and mood changes
Varies across substances
Impairment: most important aspect

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Substance use disorder

Pattern of use lasting 12 months and associated with significant impairment
Symptoms: taking more than intended, persistent desire to quit/unsuccessful attempts to quit, great deal of time spent on substance, craving/strong desire to use, failure to fulfill major roles, persistent social problems, important activities given up, use in hazardous situations, exacerbation of known condition, tolerance, withdrawal when stopped

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How severity of a substance use disorder is measured

# of symptoms, not how much is used

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Depressants mechanism

Depress CNS activity

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Types of depressants

Alcohol
Barbiturates
Hypnotics (Ambien)
Benzodiazepines (usually used to treat anxiety; Xanax, Valium, Rufies, etc.)

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Neurotransmitter depressants act upon

GABA: increase

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Intoxication symptoms of depressants

Slurred speech
Incoordination
Nystagmus (involuntary jerkiness of eyes)

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Withdrawal symptoms of depressants

Medically dangerous
Hand tremors
Hallucinations
Seizures

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Long-term effects of alcohol abuse

Liver damage (cirrhosis)
Cognitive impairment: Wernicke-Korsakoff's (memory impairment, delusions, confusion)
Pancreatitis
Cardiovascular issues

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Epidemiology of alcohol usage

50% of Americans drink
23% of Americans binge drink (4+ drinks for women; 6+ drinks for men)
17% of Americans qualify for alcoholism at some point in their lifetimes (more males than females)
Alcoholism has a progressive course (~20% remit)

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Stimulants mechanism

Stimulate CNS activity

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Types of stimulants

Amphetamines (meth, ecstasy)
Cocaine (different forms: intensity depends on how fast it enters bloodstream)
Nicotine
Caffeine

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Neurotransmitters acted upon by stimulants

Amphetamines and cocaine: increase dopamine
Nicotine: acetylcholine

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Intoxication symptoms of stimulants

Tachycardia (racing heart)
Decreased appetite
Chest pain
Seizures

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Withdrawal symptoms of stimulants

Not medically dangerous
Fatigue
Vivid dreams (usually nightmares)
Depression

20

Effects of meth on body

Teeth erosion
Sores from picking at skin
Gaunt from not eating

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Effects of opioids

Analgesic (painkiller)
Euphoria

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Types of opioids

Heroin
OxyContin
Morphine

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Neurotransmitter acted upon by opioids

Endorphins (pain relieving effects and euphoric effects)

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Intoxication symptoms of opioids

Pupil dilation/contraction
Drowsiness (or coma)
Slurred speech

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Withdrawal symptoms of opioids

Not medically dangerous
Excessive yawning
Nausea
Piloerection (goosebumps)

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Effect of hallucinogens (psychodelics)

Alter perceptions (not necessarily hallucinations)

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Types of hallucinogens

Marijuana
LSD
Psilocybin (peyote)
Mescalin (shrooms)

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Neurotransmitter acted upon by LSD

Serotonin

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Intoxication symptoms of marijuana

Conjunctival injection (red eyes)
Increased appetite (munchies)
Dried mouth
Tachycardia (racing heart)
Psychomotor retardation

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Anomaly of marijuana

Minimal or reverse tolerance (more you use, the less it takes to get high)

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Withdrawal from hallucinogens

Withdrawal is minimal

32

Intoxication symptoms of LSD

Perceptual changes
Sweating
Blurred vision
Incoordination

33

Inhalents

Volatile solvents breathed directly into lungs (spray paint, hair spray, paint thinner, gasoline, nitrous oxide)
Effects similar to alcohol
Tolerance/withdrawal common

34

Anabolic steroids

Derived from testosterone
Medical uses and increased body mass
Doesn't produce a physiological high
Can result in long-term mood disturbances and physical problems

35

Dissociative anesthetics

Cause drowsiness, relieve pain, cause dissociations (become separate from who you are)
Examples: PCP (angel dust), ketamine (special K), bath salts

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Designer drugs

Synthetic drugs produced to mimic the effects of illegal drugs
Don't contain illegal substances (change compound slightly)
An effort to stay ahead of the law

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Genetic influence of substance abuse disorders

Strong genetic component
Reward sensitivity (likelihood to get positive effects from substance use)
Differences in metabolism

38

Cognitive influences of substance abuse disorders

Expectancy effects (affects you how you think it's going to affect you)
Cravings (drug cues cause desire to use)
Using is not usually an active choice

39

Agonist substitution

Treatment of substance abuse disorders
Give medication that acts on same neurotransmitter as substance
Safer, controlled

40

Antagonist substitution

Treatment of substance abuse disorders
Give medication that blocks positive effects of substance

41

Aversive treatment

Treatment of substance abuse disorders
Make use extremely unpleasant
Give medication along with substance to make person sick