Mood Disorders Flashcards Preview

Abnormal Psychology > Mood Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mood Disorders Deck (33):
1

Major depressive episode (MDE)

2 week period marked by depressed mood every day, loss of interest or pleasure, physical/behavioral symptoms, and cognitive symptoms
Either depressed mood or loss of pleasure must be present

2

Anhedonia

Loss of interest or pleasure
No longer finding enjoyment in favorite activities

3

Physical/behavioral symptoms of MDE

Weight loss/gain or disturbed appetite
Insomnia or hypersomnia
Psychomotor agitation or retardation (slowing down of psychological and motor functioning)
Fatigue/loss of energy

4

Cognitive symptoms of MDE

Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt
Concentration difficulties
Hopelessness
Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide

5

Manic episode

1 week period (shorter if hospitalized) marked by 3 of following:
Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
Decreased need for sleep
Talkativeness
Flight of ideas
Distractibility
Increased goal directed behavior (not increase in productivity- can't focus on details)
Reckless, risk taking behavior

6

Hypomanic episode

4 day period marked by elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and increased goal-directed behavior (same symptoms as manic episode, but less severe)
No impairment present

7

Major depressive disorder (MDD) description

1 or more MDE
No manic episodes or hypomanic episodes
Usually recurrent episodes, but can exist with only 1 episode

8

Bipolar I disorder

1 or more manic episode
MDE and hypomanic episode not required

9

Bipolar II disorder

1 or more MDE and hypomanic episode
No manic episode
Fluctuation from high to low
Not so high that it's impairing

10

MDD epidemiology

17% lifetime prevalence (one of most common disorders)
2:1 female to male
Age of onset: usually 20's, but can occur in retirement age
Course: episodic (average episode 4-9 months and 80-90% experience subsequent episodes)

11

Problem with treating MDD

Because disorder is episodic, it's hard to tell if treatment caused end of episode or if episode just ended on its own

12

MDD specifiers

Psychotic features (delusions and hallucinations)
Peripartum onset (after childbirth)
Seasonal pattern (winter: lack of sunshine)

13

Delusion

Thoughts with no basis in reality

14

Hallucination

Sensory experience without stimuli

15

MDD biological causes/contributors

Genetic vulnerability (~50%)
Low levels of serotonin in relation to other neurotransmitters
HPA
Increased REM sleep (contributor; don't know why this happens)
Higher activity on right side of brain than left
Highly comorbid with other disorders, especially anxiety disorders

16

Life stressors that can lead to MDD

Marital distress
Life changes/stresses: school, death, losing job, holidays, etc.
Lack of social support

17

MDD psychological causes/contributors

Learned helplessness ("I don't have any way to get out of this, so why even try?")
Lack of reinforcement from environment (putting forth an effort doesn't change anything)
Maladaptive beliefs ("I am worthless" or "I am unlovable")
Cognitive triad (negative beliefs about self, present, and future)

18

Medications used to treat MDD

Tricyclic antidepressants
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs): inhibit MAO that breaks down serotonin; seldomly used due to drug interactions
SSRIs and SNRIs

19

Last ditch effort treatments of MDD

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation

20

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

Last resort in treating MDD, but highly effective (treats ~70% of untreatable cases)
How it treats depression is unknown
Side effects: short-term memory loss; sometimes nausea, dizziness, or headaches

21

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

Last ditch effort treatment of MDD
Magnet directs pulse to brain, stimulating it

22

Therapeutic techniques used to treat MDD

Behavioral activation: get people out doing fun things
Cognitive restructuring: attack defeatist thoughts
Interpersonal therapy (IPT): focus on relationships/loss and building new relationships

23

Combining medicine and therapy in treating MDD

Similar success rates of therapy and meds
Combining treatment is beneficial: decreased recurrence of depressive episodes

24

Persistant depressive disorder (dysthymia)

Depressed mood lasting at least 2 years (no 2 month period without symptoms)
Similar symptoms to MDD: poor appetite, poor sleep, low energy, low self-esteem, poor concentration, feelings of hopelessness
Long-term low level depression

25

Bipolar disorders epidemiology

Very small lifetime prevalence: 0.4-1.6%
Age of onset: early adulthood (18-22)
Equal occurrence in males and females
Course: episodic
Bipolar II can develop into bipolar I
Average 4 episodes occur in 10 years (not daily fluctuations in mood)

26

Bipolar disorders as severe mental illnesses

Chronic
Unpredictable
Severe impact to individual (in manic state, can behave recklessly and doesn't seek help)

27

Bipolar disorders specifiers

Psychotic features
Rapid cycling: more frequent episodes

28

Bipolar disorders causes and contributors

Vastly unknown
~50% genetic influence
Excess dopamine in manic state (reward system: feeling invincible)

29

Medications used to treat bipolar disorders

Lithium salts: mood stabilizer; don't know why they work
Anticonvulsants: used more often than lithium- slightly less increase in suicidality
Medication compliance poor (don't want to take something that will bring person down from manic state)
Medicating depression can induce manic episode

30

Therapeutic treatments of bipolar disorders

CBT treats depression, but not mania
Hospitalization is often necessary: protect person from own risky behavior

31

Cyclothymia

2 years of numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms and depressive symptoms
No MDE, manic episode, or hypomanic episode
No 2 month period without symptoms
Not much is known about disorder

32

Persistent depressive disorder epidemiology

Age of onset: late 20's
Course: chronic (average lasts about 5 years)
Equal in males and females

33

Cyclothymia epidemiology

Very small lifetime prevalence: 0.4%
Course: chronic
Equal occurrence in males and females
Age of onset: adolescence- early adulthood