Developmental Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Developmental Disorders Deck (17):

Intellectual disability

Deficits in intellectual functioning (reasoning, problem solving, planning, abstract thinking, judgment, and learning)
Deficits in adaptive functioning (communication, social, independent living)
Onset during childhood


Intellectual disability causes and contributors

Prenatal: teratogens (environmental chemicals that damage fetus)
Perinatal: labor difficulties, hypoxia (lack of blood flow to brain)
Postnatal: head injury, deprivation of food or oxygen
Genetic risk factors: PKU (phenylalanine builds up in brain because body can't degrade it)
Chromosomal abnormalities: Down syndrome
75% have no known cause (referred to as "cultural-familial")


Specific learning disorder

Difficulties learning and using academic skills
Academic skills lower than expected for age
Not due to intellectual disability
3 types: reading, written expression, math


Autistic spectrum disorder

Persistent deficits in social communication and interaction
Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior (severe: self-stimulation; mild: routine-based behavior)
Symptoms present in early development
Common symptom: hypersensitivity to environmental stimuli


Autistic spectrum disorder specifiers

With accompanying language impairment (classic autism)
Without accompanying language impairment (Asperger's)
With accompanying intellectual impairment


How severity of autistic spectrum disorder is determined

Severity is determined by level of impairment in social communication and intensity of restricted behaviors


Autistic spectrum disorder epidemiology

Prevalence: 1 in 68 (increasing: greater awareness, changes in diagnostic criteria)
Sex: equal


Autistic spectrum disorder causes and contributors

Largely unknown
Genetics: many different genes involved
Brain abnormalities: lower levels of oxytocin (bonding hormone), smaller cerebellum, fewer neurons in amygdala, dysfunctional mirror neurons (empathy)


Myths of autistic spectrum disorder

Bad parenting
Lack of self-awareness


Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Need either symptoms of inattention or symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity
Present before age of 12
Impairments in multiple settings


Subtypes of ADHD

Inattentive type
Hyperactive type
Combined type


ADHD epidemiology

Prevalence: 6% of children
Many continue into adulthood (hyperactivity turns into inattention over time)
Sex: 3:1 male to female


ADHD causes and contributors

Genetic links
Gene-environment interactions (punishment fuels stress which fuels ADHD genes which fuels punishment)
Smaller overall brain volume: need to externally stimulate brain that is understimulated
Frontal lobe impairment
Maternal smoking and drinking
No evidence for diet and additives or parenting


Treatment of ADHD

Stimulant medications: stimulate brain to lessen need for external stimulation
70% improve
Stimulants help people with ADHD concentrate, but do nothing to help non-ADHD people concentrate
Behavioral treatments: parental training (applied behavioral analysis: use operant conditioning to help children to succeed)
Combined meds and therapy: superior to either alone


Controversies of ADHD

Over-diagnosed: many cases of ADHD are diagnosed by general practitioners
Some states now have laws that physicians have to refer potential ADHD cases to psychologists for formal testing


Oppositional defiant disorder

Pattern of angry mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, or vindictiveness
Describes many teenagers: must differentiate between puberty and disorder


Conduct disorder

Repetitive pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others are violated
Aggression to people and animals
Destruction of property
Deceitfulness or theft
Serious violation of rules
Oftentimes, in trouble with the law
Can develop into antisocial personality disorder upon reaching adulthood