Integrated Approach to Psychopathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Integrated Approach to Psychopathology Deck (44):
1

Relative number of genes that influence mental illness

Mental illness is polygenetic

2

Genetic contribution to mental illness

<50%

3

Diathesis-stress model

Diathesis: genetic vulnerability
Stress: life events
Diathesis + stress = disorder

4

Reciprocal gene-environment model

Genes impact environment
Environment impacts genes

5

Action potential

Electrical charge that travels down the neuron and triggers release of neurotransmitters

6

Synaptic transmission

1. Neuron A releases neurotransmitters into synapse
2. Neurotransmitters bind with receptors on neuron B
3. Enough neurotransmitters bind with receptors, neuron B fires
4. Extra neurotransmitters in synapse are removed (breakdown and reuptake)

7

Neurotransmitters

Allow for neural communication
Hundreds in human body, but 6 extensively studied
Function depends on location in brain

8

Serotonin (5-HT)

Neurotransmitter
Mood, sleep, learning

9

Norepinephrine

Neurotransmitter
Mood, arousal

10

Dopamine

Neurotransmitter
Movement, pleasure

11

Acetylcholine (ACH)

Neurotransmitter
Muscles (contraction and restriction)
Botox disrupts; black widow venom increases

12

Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)

Neurotransmitter
Slows down brain
Used in anti-anxiety drugs

13

Glutamate

Neurotransmitter
Stimulates brain

14

Agonists

Increases production and availability of neurotransmitters

15

Antagonists

Decreases availability of neurotransmitters

16

Medulla

Hindbrain
Life sustaining processes

17

Pons

Hindbrain
Regulation of sleep stages

18

Cerebellum

Hindbrain
Fine motor coordination

19

Hypothalamus

Limbic system
Basic drives (hunger, thirst, sex drive, etc.)
Organizes pituitary gland, which releases hormones

20

Amygdala

Limbic system
Emotions (anger, fear)

21

Hippocampus

Limbic system
Consolidation of memory (gateway by which new memories are made; doesn't store memories)

22

Frontal lobe

Cerebral cortex
Thinking, movement, executive function, emotional regulation
Motor cortex: different areas trigger different parts of body to move

23

Parietal lobe

Cerebral cortex
Touch
Primary somatosensory cortex: different areas process touch info from different parts of body

24

Occipital lobe

Cerebral cortex
Visual integration

25

Temporal lobe

Cerebral cortex
Auditory integration and memory storage

26

Right hemisphere of brain

Visual and spatial

27

Left hemisphere of brain

Analytical, language

28

Corpus callosum

Communication between 2 halves of brain (connects halves)

29

Contralateral control

Left side of brain controls right side and vice versa

30

Somatic branch of peripheral nervous system

Nerves that control voluntary muscles

31

Autonomic branch of peripheral nervous system

Nerves that control automatic processes such as digestion, pupil dilation and heartbeat

32

Sympathetic nervous system

Part of autonomic branch
Fight or flight (respiration increases, heart rate increases, digestion decreases, etc.)

33

Parasympathetic nervous system

Part of autonomic branch
Counteracts sympathetic nervous system (returns body to normal autonomic functioning)

34

Adrenaline

Hormone that controls fear response

35

Cortisol

Hormone that controls stress response
Produced by adrenal gland

36

Traditional view of neuroscience

Psychopathology results from brain irregularity; to treat disorders, brain must be fixed
View is too simple: experiences impact brain structure and function

37

Memory accessibility

How accessible are certain memories over others

38

Memory biases

Which things do you choose to remember/remember more easily

39

Attentional biases

Which things do you choose to focus on

40

Interpretation biases

People interpret things differently based on their mental states

41

Stroop paradigm

Attention to 1 area interferes with ability to do task in other area (ex- fear of spider-related words interferes with ability to recognize colors)

42

Affect

Outward presentation of mood

43

Difference between mood and emotion

Lasts longer than emotion
Not linked to specific event

44

Equifinality

Several paths lead to a given outcome