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Flashcards in Personality Disorders Deck (20):

Personality disorder definiton

Enduring stable ways of interacting with the environment
Inflexible and maladaptive
Can be ego syntonic (positive experience) or ego dystonic (negative experience)


3 clusters of personality disorders

Cluster A: odd or eccentric
Cluster B: dramatic, emotional, erratic
Cluster C: fearful or anxious


Cluster B disorders

Antisocial personality disorder
Borderline personality disorder
Histrionic personality disorder
Narcissistic personality disorder


Antisocial personality disorder

Pervasive pattern of disregard for the feelings of others and violations of the rights of others
Lack remorse
Irresponsible, impulsive, and deceitful
At least 18 years old
Often end up either in jail or as a CEO of a company


Features related to antisocial personality disorder

Psychopathy (personality trait-based)
Criminality (people with APD are more likely to end up in jail)
Conduct disorder (child version of APD)


Antisocial personality disorder causes and contributors

Underarousal hypothesis: cortical arousal is low (less activity in part of brain that creates emotions)
Cortical immaturity hypothesis: cerebral cortex is underdeveloped, causing long range planning to be compromised
Fearlessness hypothesis: less sensitivity to pain and danger cues
Emotional functioning: poor at identifying negative emotions and less sensitive to emotion inductions


Treatment of antisocial personality disorder

Unlikely to seek treatment (ego syntonic disorder)
Goal: improve positive behavior and empathy
What actually happens: increases antisocial behavior (learn how to lie better and how not to get caught from other people in group)


Borderline personality disorder

Pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affect
Very intense relational attachment: when other person tries to pull away, person with this disorder becomes really upset
Fear of abandonment
Interpersonal paranoia (always think that others are talking badly about you)
Parasuicidal behavior (self-injury that isn't severe enough to kill)
Black and white thinking


Borderline personality disorder causes and contributors

Invalidating early environment (parents don't pay enough positive attention to kid)
Early trauma/abuse, often sexual


Treatments for borderline personality disorder

SSRIs provide short term relief
Dialectical behavior therapy: target self-harm behavior and develop sense of trust with patient (help him/her to know that he/she won't be abandoned)


Histrionic personality disorder

Pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking
Sexually provocative
Shallow emotions
Poor boundaries: may come on to people inappropriately


Narcissistic personality disorder

Pervasive pattern of grandiosity and need for admiration
Lack of empathy
Preoccupation with fantasies of success
Attitude of entitlement
Sensitive to criticism
Narcissistic rage: lashing out at person who attacks ego


Cluster A disorders

Paranoid personality disorder
Schizoid personality disorder
Schizotypal personality disorder
Not psychotic symptoms, but some features of them


Paranoid personality disorder

Pervasive pattern of unjustified mistrust and suspicion
Doubt loyalty of friends and spouse
Perceive that people are attacking character
Not severe enough for psychosis


Schizoid personality disorder

Pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and lack of desire for them
Limited range of emotions: indifferent to praise or criticism
Not severe enough to be psychosis


Schizotypal personality disorder

Pervasive pattern of social/interpersonal deficits
Discomfort with close relationships (awkward, but still desired)
Perceptual distortions (see things differently than other people)
Eccentricities (lack of adherence to social norms)
Behavior/dress odd and unusual
Not severe enough to be psychosis


Cluster C disorders

Avoidant personalty disorder
Dependent personality disorder
Obsessive compulsive personality disorder


Avoidant personality disorder

Pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to evaluation
Avoidant of relationships
Fearful of rejection
Views self as socially inept


Dependent personality disorder

Pervasive pattern of an excessive need to be cared for
Clingy and fearful of separation
Difficulty making minor life decisions
Goes to extreme lengths for nurturance
Feels helpless when alone


Obsessive compulsive personality disorder

Pervasive preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control
Focuses on details, rules, and lists: more focused on organizing task than doing task itself
Does things the "right" way
Not OCD!