Flashcards in HM Manual CH. 18 Pharmacy Deck (28):
United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USPS-NF)
Sets standards for the quality, purity, strength and consistency
What ACT designates the USPS-NF as the official reference for meds marketed in the U.S.?
The U.S. Federal Food, Medication and Cosmetics Act
What reference is easy to use for clinicians for quick and concise med information?
Drug Information Handbook
What is the most widely used text/reference also known as the "blue bible" of pharmacology?
Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy
What is "dose"?
The amount of med to be administered.
Average therapeutic doses are known as?
"Usual adult dose"
What is dosage range?
Min and max amounts of a med required to produce the desired effect.
Least amount of med to produce therapeutic effect.
Largest amount of med given without reaching toxic effect.
Therapeutic dose is calculated on an average male of?
24yrs and weighs 150pds
Minimum lethal dose
Least amount of med that can produce death.
What two primary factors affect dosage?
Age and weight
What is the most common factor?
What is the formula for Young's rule?
Age in years/age in years +12 X AD dose = child dose
What has a more direct bearing on dose than any other factor?
What is the formula for Clark's rule?
Weight in pds/150 X AD = Child's Dose
What are some other factors that influence dosage?
Sex, race, habitual use, time and mode.
What are the most common routes of administering meds?
Oral(enteral) and Injection(parental)
What is the MOST common method of administering meds?
What is sublingual?
Meds administered by placing under the tongue.
What is buccal?
Meds administered by placing between the cheek and gum.
Methods of parental administration are:
Subcutaneous, intradermal, intramuscular, intravenous.
I.V. Administration advantages over other routes are:
Most rapid onset, not able to take oral.
Disadvantages of I.V. are:
Error in dose are magnified, risk of infection, real or psychological pain, must be sterile.
What are the three types of inhalation?
Vaporization, gas inhalation, nebulization.
Topical meds serve what two purposes?
Local effect - relieve itching, burning
Systemic effect - absorbed into the bloodstream
Examples if topicals:
Ointments, creams, lotions and shampoos.