Hormonal Changes and The Maternal Adaptation to Pregnancy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hormonal Changes and The Maternal Adaptation to Pregnancy Deck (50)
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1

what is the average weight gain of a mother during gestation

1.5-4.5

2

what components of the pregnant mother contribute to weight gain

blood, fetus, amniotic fluid, adipose tissue, placenta, breast,extracellular water

3

when is most weight gained during pregnancy

after week 20

4

what happens to plasma volume during pregnancy

increases the more children you have the more the plasma increases

5

what hormone causes increases rbc synthesis in mother during pregnancy

erythropoietin

6

why does a mother with increased rbc during pregnancy appear anemic

number increases but apparent anaemia
due to dilution of hb

7

what happens to Haematocrit value

drops from 40 to 32 percent ratio of rbc to total blood volume

8

why does intracellular dpg increase by approx 30% during pregnancy

DPG (2-3 diphosphoglycerate) facilitates
offload of O2
release to fetus
by stabilising tense state

9

outline fatty acid transport in blood

Lipoprotein lipase
releases non-esterified
fatty acids ((NEFAS)
from the
trigyclerides in
lipoproteins (LP).
NEFAS are then transported
across the trophoblast cells
by fatty acids transport
proteins (FATP)

10

why are women advised to take folic acid supplements early on

folate supplements in
early pregnancy reduce
neural tube defects and The essential role of Folate and Vitamin B12
in DNA Synthesis

11

what are the three main hormones to bear in mind from the placenta

hcg, progesterone and estrogen

12

what happens to estrogen conc as pregnancy progresses

it keeps rising and rising

13

what does estrogen at high conc do to anterior pituitary

inhibits fsh and lh preventing ovulation

14

Stimulate synthesis of liver fatty acids and
cholesterol which hormone during pregnancy is responsible

estrogen, fat stored and needed for energy throughout pregnancy and when baby is born for breast feeding

15

how does estrogen effect uterus for maternal adaptations during pregnancy

• Growth of uterus
• ‘Priming’ of uterus for labour

16

what does estrogen do to raas

Stimulates Renin-Angiotensin- Aldosterone axis

17

how does estrogen effect heart during pregnancy

causes cardiac adaptation to aid higher bp and blood volume

18

how does estrogen affect blood glucose

Weak anti-insulin activity

19

what does estrogen do to the cervix

cervical ripening

20

list the effects of estrogen

• Stimulate synthesis of liver fatty acids and
cholesterol
• Cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy
• Growth of uterus
• ‘Priming’ of uterus for labour
• Weak anti-insulin activity (via enhanced cortisol)
• Onset of labour-relative rise v fall in progesterone?
• Cervical Ripening
• Stimulates Renin-Angiotensin- Aldosterone axis

21

what does progesterone do to facilitate implantation

Prepares and maintains the endometrium to allow
implantation

22

after day approx day 60 where does progesterone get produced

placenta

23

why is progesterone important in delivering child

Plays a role in parturition, just does play a role don't question

24

why is progesterone important to fetus

underveloped so Serves as a substrate for fetal adrenal gland
production of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids

25

how does progesterone affect maternal immmune response during gestation

May have a role in suppressing the maternal
immunologic response to fetal antigens thereby
preventing preventing maternal rejection of the
trophoblast

26

what does progesterone do during preganncy to breathing and c02

• Induces overbreathing and lowering of
maternal CO2

27

how does progesterone maintain pregnancy

– Inhibition of uterine contractility
– Prevention of ripening of cervix

28

how does hcg effect corpus luteum

Rescue and maintenance of function of the
corpus luteum (continued progesterone
production

29

why is the corpus luteum and hcg so important in first seven weeks of pregnancy

Survival of the pregnancy is dependent on corpus luteum
progesterone until the 7th week of pregnancy

30

what are the biological functions of hcg apart from maintaining corpus luteum

• Stimulation of maternal thyroid activity
– hCG binds to the TSH receptors of thyroid cells
– LH-hCG receptor is expressed in the thyroid
– Possibly, hCG stimulates thyroid activity via the LHhCG
receptor and by the TSH receptor