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Flashcards in The Physiology of the Menstrual Cycle Deck (43)
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1

List the components of the reproductive system(organs glands)

Ovary
– Oviduct (Uterine tubes=Fallopian tubes)
– Uterus (Nourishment of the developing
embryo and fetus)
Accessory glands
Copulatory organ and parturition
– vagina
Vulva
Mammary glands

2

What are the functions of the ovary

Oocyte release
– Menstruation
– Reproduction

Hormone production causing Female phenotype

3

how many eggs before birth

7 million

4

how many eggs during menopause

0

5

how many eggs at first period

0.5 million

6

Outline 7 steps of normal follicle development

1.primary follicle 2. growing follicle 3.mature follicle 4.ovulation 5.empty follicle 6. corpus luteum 7.corpus luteum regresses

7

why is LH low during follicular phase of menstrual cycle even though GnRH is being secreted

Low concentration of oestrogen inhibits LH secretion from the anterior pituitary. oestrogen is produced by developing follicle cells

8

FSH is secreted in when oestrogen is low or high

low

9

As follicle develop in follicular stage what happens to estrogen conc

it rises

10

What are periphial effects of estrogen in women

bone and muscle growth endometrial growth, maintains breast and female secondary characteristics

11

after 10 daYS OF MENSTRUAL CYCLE WHAT effect does estrogen have on lh

positive feedback

12

explain oestrogen effect on lh at differing concentrations

low oestrogen concentration negative feedback inhibits lh, at high conc of oestrogen positive feedback lh increases

13

how long is follicular phase

1-10 days

14

What does massive spike in LH around day 14 do

triggers ovulation in most mature follicle

15

After ovulation what happens to LH GNRH

all drop

16

days 11-14 of menstrual cycle are called

Ovulatory phase: Days 11-14

17

before ovulation what do the fimbrae do

Shortly before the ovulation
fimbriae begin to sweep over
the surface of ovaries

18

in the luteal phase what three hormones does the corpus luteum secrete

inhibin progesterone oestrogen

19

iS INHIBIN PRESENT IN FOLLICULAR PHASE

No only after ovulation secreted by corpus luteum

20

describe progesterone levels during menstrual cycle

Progesterone rises during luteal phase. low level beforehand

21

What does inhibin do and why

negative feedback inhibit fsh, at luteal phase no maturation of folllicles needed yet

22

how is GNRH release inhibited by hormones in luteal phase

rising progesterone from corpus luteum and falling oestrogen

23

what does progesterone do

inhibit gnrh causing fsh and lh to fall and stimulate endometrial growth to allow implantation

24

What causes progesterone inhibin to eventually decrease in luteal phase

they are secreted by the corpus luteum which eventually deteriorates allowing GNRH secretion to increase and therefore fsh and lh and a new cycle

25

What is the function of the uterus

provides environment for egg implantation, and nourishment of the embryo and fetus during pregnancy
protection of fetus and expelling fetus.

to transport sperm to uterine tubes

26

What happens menstrual phase day 1-5 of to the uterine wall

The functional layer of the
endometrium becomes
detached from the uterine wall,
resulting in bleeding (menses).

27

Describe what happens to uterine wall Proliferativa phase
(D 6 – 14)

Endometrium begins to
proliferate and thicken,
tubular glands and
spiral arteries form.

28

Describe what happens to uterine wall in Late Proliferative
(Ovulatory D13-14)

The glands are long and tortuous due to
active growth. Stroma is gradually
becoming oedematous.

29

describe what happens in Secretory phase
(D 15 – 22) in uterine walls

Enlargement of glands which begin
secreting mucus and glycogen in
preparation for implantation of the
fertilized ovum.
Increased fluid (oedema) in the
stroma

rising progesterone level

30

what are the three segments of the uterine tube

infundibulum contains fimbrae,
ampulla and isthmus