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1

define normal birth

Spontaneous in onset, low-risk at the start of labour and remaining so throughout labour and delivery. The infant is born spontaneously in the vertex position between 37 and 42 completed weeks of pregnancy. After birth mother and infant are in good condition. (World Health Organisation, 1997).

2

state seven main reasons why encouraging normal birth is important

safety, physical, psychological (less post traumatic distress), financial(cheaper than c section), colonisation of the baby, higher rates of successful breast feeding, natural bonding process

3

outline what happens in passive first stage of labour

irregular painful contractions, some cervical change and membranes rupture

4

what happens in active first stage of labour

progressive dilation from 4cm onwards at cervix, regular painful contractions

5

how do you monitor labour from a fetal perspective

fetal heart activity, position and descent

6

how do you monitor labour from a maternal perspective

• contractions • dilatation • vital signs • drugs/fluids • urine output • PV loss: liquor, blood • pain • emotional state

7

state 3 groups of pain relief used in labour

pharmacological, non-pharmacological and regional

8

what pharmacological remedies are used for pain management in labour

Entonox • opiods

9

what non pharmacological remdies are used for pain management in labour

water, massage, breathing relaxation

10

what regional remedies are used for pain management in labour

epidural

11

how do you know a woman is transitioning into the second stage of labour

starts to sweat, uncontrollable urge to push, purple line between buttocks as they spread apart, mood changes, feeling baby head in vagina, grunting with contractions

12

what happens during passive second stage

Passive second stage: Full dilatation of the cervix prior to or in the absence of involuntary expulsive contractions

"woman rest and be thankful stage" try take a break LOL

13

what happens during active second stage

Active second stage: - the baby is visible expulsive contractions with a finding of full dilatation of the cervix or other signs of full dilatation. baby comes out eventually

14

what happens during the third stage

placenta expulsion, Comprises the phase of placental separation, its descent to the lower segment and finally, its expulsion with the membrane

15

how much blood remains in the placenta after birth

one third of baby blood is in the placenta, immediately after birth umbilical cord will stop pulsating and it is delivered out with a few contractions, slides out easily

16

why does mother want to cuddle child skin to skin immediately after birth and why is it encouraged

Many women instinctively want to cuddle their newborn baby 'skin-to-skin' straight after birth.
This is an instinct supported by scientific research which has found that this early skin-to-skin contact has important benefits for both mums and babies, helping them both to recover from the birth and get to know one another.

17

what three things do women want the most during pregnancy with regards to their physical environment

to be able to walk around, clean room and not to be moved about during pregnancy

18

what does nulliparous mean

never had a child before

19

what are the difference in terms of risk for nulliparous and multiparous women in giving child birth at home or hospital

Advise low-risk multiparous women that planning to give birth at home or in a midwifery-led unit (freestanding or alongside) is particularly suitable for them because the rate of interventions is lower and the outcome for the baby is no different compared with an obstetric unit.
• Advise low-risk nulliparous women that planning to give birth in a midwifery-led unit (freestanding or alongside) is particularly suitable for them because the rate of interventions is lower and the outcome for the baby is no different compared with an obstetric unit. Explain that if they plan birth at home there is a small increase in the risk of an adverse outcome for the baby.

20

Define the puerperium

The puerperium is defined as the time from the end of the third stage through the first few weeks after delivery. This period is usually considered to be 6 weeks in duration.

21

state some of the goals of healthcare for the mother and child during the puerperium

Monitor physiological changes.
• Diagnose and treat postnatal complications.
• Give mother emotional support.
• Establish infant feeding.
• Advice about contraception

22

during puerperium what areas of mother body are vulnerable to infection

breast uterus abdomen perineum