Flashcards in Humphrey Reading: The Social Function of Intellect Deck (44)
How does nature interact with her "production lines", according to Humphrey (1976)?
superfluous capacity is trimmed back, new capacity added only as and when it is needed
What was Heim's (1970) broad definition of intelligence?
the ability to grasp the essentials of a situation and respond appropriately
Why does Humphrey (1976) call Heim's (1970) definition of intelligence circular?
when intelligence is defined as the ability to do this or that, who dares question the biological advantage of being able?
Humphrey says an animal displays intelligence when what?
he modifies his behaviour on the basis of valid inference from evidence
According to Humphrey, whee does the main role of creative intellect lie?
What fault does he have with the original cognitive tests performed on primates?
even in the species which have the most advanced technologies the exams are largely tests of knowledge rather than imaginative reasoning => answers arrived through trial and error
What does Humphrey suggest about subsistence technology?
rather than requiring intelligence, may actually be a substitute for it
How did Humphrey compare Einstein to chimpanzees?
Einstein displayed his genius at rare times in 'artificial' situations--he did not use it, for he did not need to use it, in the common world of practical affairs
Humphrey argues that the life of the great apes and man may not require much in the way of practical invention but rather...
critically on the possession of wide factual knowledge of practical technique and the nature of habitat
In what context can factual knowledge of practical technique and the naure of the habitat be acquired?
-only in the context of a social community: a community in which provides both a medium for the cultural transmission of information and a protective environment in which individual learning can occur
Humphrey says a cage is a ____ place to keep a monkey
What did Humphrey's study with Helen show about the impact of environment?
with proper environmental stimulation (being released from her cage) her vision improved and had almost perfect spatial vision even after having her visual cortex surgically removed
Why were monkeys placed in cages together able to still grow their intellect despite having no objects to explore?
had each other to manipulate and explore (social interaction)
The life of social animals is highly _______
Where are benefits to be gained from each individual member in a complex society?
1. preserving the overall structure of the group
2. exploiting and out manouevering others within it
Why does Humphrey call social primates calculating being?
need to be able to calculate the consequences of their own behavior, calculate likely behaviour of others, calculate the balance of advantage and loss--also based in context where the evidence is ephemeral, ambiguous, and liable to change
Like chess, a social interaction is typically a ______ between social partners
What does Humphrey say is the chief role of intellect?
hold society together
How does the social system serve its purpose of acting as a 'polytechnic school' for the teaching of subsistence technology?
1. allowing a period of prolonged dependence during which young animals, spared the need to fend for themselves are free to experiment and explore
2. bringing the youth into contact with older, more experienced members of the community from whom they can learn by imitation
the presence of dependents in a society calls for what?
measure of tolerance and unselfish sharing
the greater the number of generations the more _____ the picture becomes
Why does a complex society cause new internal pressures to arise?
animal's intellectual adversaries are members of his own breeding community
If an animal spends all morning in non productive socializing, then ....
he must be at least twice as efficient as a producer in the afternoon
How is the selfishness of animals tempered?
sympathy: tendency on the part of one social partner to identify himself with the other and so to make the other's goals to some extent his own
Men expect to argue with problems rather than what?
being limited to arguing about them
What must man take into consideration when approaching a social problem?
the situation confronting him is unlikely to be stable
What is an example of humans treating inanimate entities as people? (and by doing so, sure to make mistakes)
people commonly attempt to bargain with nature, through prayer, through sacrifice or ritual persuasion
What does Humphrey compare to conversations between a mother and child, suggesting that these things have a close, structural similarity?
speak of a conversation between a gardener and his roses or a farmer and his corn
Humphrey says transactions are what?
something which people seek out actively and will force on nature whenever they are able