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Flashcards in Matsuzawa (2003) Deck (39):
1

What is the significance of Imo?

-evidence of cultural propagation of sweet potato washing behavior

2

Who is Ai? What are her skills?

-chimpanzee Matsuzawa studied for more than 2 decades
-multitude of skills, including visual symbols

3

What is the Ai project's aim?

-clarify aspects of the cimpanzee mind within social contexts, focusing specifically on the emergence, modification, and cross generational transfer of cultural traditions in chimpanzee communities

4

How many study facilities does the Ai project have?

-2: one in the wild and on in the lab

5

What did Imanishi discover in his study of wild Japanese monkeys in 1948?

-habitat segregation
-characterized evolution as the noncompetitive coexistence of various kinds of organisms as a whole

6

What were the most important findings of Imanishi's study (1948)?

1. monkeys lived in community called a "troop" that consisted of multiple males and multiple females and moved from place to place as a whole
2. matrilineal society; females remain in their natal group
3. neighboring communities were separate, exclusive entities
4. members of the group were ranked according to their standing in society
5. monkeys had a set of distinctive vocalizations

7

What is Kawamura's law?

some individuals were dominant while in the same matrilineal family, the youngest individual was more dominant than the other siblings

8

What was the target of Imanshi's (1948) study?

unravel the social structure of wild Japanese monkeys => seeking evolutionary origins of human society

9

What were the two main channels of cultural propagation in Imanshi's (1948) study?

1. kinship
2. playmate relations

10

Is there a critical period for learning SPW? If so, what is it?

yes; 2-5 years

11

True/False: Behaviors of SPW have been transmitted to the descendents of Imo's group and family.

TRUE

12

What is Matsuzawa's "own niche of research"?

the study of the chimpanzee's mind rather than society

13

By the second half of the 1970s, three successful and different approaches had been devised to explore the linguistic skills of chimpanzees. What were these three projects?

1. ASL
2. Plastic Sign Language
3. Computer-controlled lexigram system

14

What were the two questions Matsuzawa asked in reference to the visual world of NHPs?

1. How do chimpanzees see the world?
2. Do they perceive it like we do?

15

What was the Matsuzawa's goal with the Ai project?

study the acquisition process of an artificial language and the corresponding brain mechanisms

16

What did Matsuzawa want to focus on with his project?

"the perceptual and cognitive basis of language-like skills" mastered by the chimpanzees

17

What approach did Matsuzawa adopt?

computer controlled lexigram system developed by Rumbaugh and colleagues

18

What were the three factors that influenced Matsuzawa's approach to the project?

1. already established sophisticated computer-controlled experiments involving various visual discrimination learning tasks in monkeys
2. aimed to clarify the acquisition process or underlying perceptual capabilities of language-like skills, which mean that they needed very objective, precise, and detailed records of what we had done and how the chimps behaved
3. project had a perspective for future applications of techniques from brain science; hoped subjects would sit quietly on a bench facing the computer system

19

How did Matsuzawa understand Lana's computer performance? How did this influence what they were hoping to investigate?

-Lana's computer performance seemed to be a sequence of visual discrimination tasks similar to that seen in monkeys

-investigate how specific visual symbols such as those representing objects, colors, etc. could be established in chimpanzees

20

(True/False): When Ai manipulated the keyboard, there was direct interaction between the chimpanzee and the human tester.

False; no direct interaction

21

What method did they use for shaping the key touch behavior with Ai?

"successive approximation" ; reward until step by step the chimp began to approach the key and then eventually press it

22

Throughout the later stages, the Ai project was characterized by what?

highly automated computer-controlled system without any social interaction during the tests

23

What was the general procedure for the keyboard tests with Ai?

MTS

24

Ai became the first chimpanzee who learned to use _____ ______ to represent quantities

arabic numerals

25

Describe the chronological development of data through the Ai project.

color perception -> shape perception and visual acuity -> recognition of numbers

26

What was the original paradigm of the Ai project?

test single subjects (both humans and chimpanzees participated) facing a computer terminal under identical conditions and using the same apparatus and procedure

27

Bossou chimpanzees used ________ as hammer and anvil to crack open oil-palm nuts

a pair of stones

28

What five types of tool use are used by Bossou chimpanzees?

1. nut cracking with stones
2. pestle-pounding of oil palm trees
3. algae scooping with a stick
4. ant dipping using a wand
5. use of leaves for drinking water

29

Chimpanzees were found to transport not only nuts but also _____ ____, demonstrating a rudimentary form of possession of particular stone tools

stone tools

30

What syntactical approach using tree like structure analysis does Matsuzawa use to explain technical problem solving in tool use behavior?

the more nodes in a tree, the more complex the sequence
-tool use sequences of chimpanzees range from the simple one-to-one level to hierarchical structures with a variety of nodes

31

A form of observational learning referred to as "education by master apprenticeship" plays a key role in what?

transmission of knowledge and skills from one generation to the next

32

Explain the "education by master apprenticeship" of chimps in relation to stone tool use? By this observation, what does this say about how cultural innovations are most likely to spread?

chimps show a strong tendency to pay attention to the stone tool use of conspecifics in their own age group or older, but not younger

-cultural innovations more likely to spread horizontally or vertically/orthogonally downward, but not upward

33

What three attributes characterize the learning process underlying the acquisition of nut cracking?

1. long term exposure from birth
2. high tolerance with no formal instruction from mothers
3. intrinsic motivation of infants for imitation not reliant on direct food reward

34

Learning in wild chimpanzees always occurs within a _____ _________

social context

35

Each community of chimpanzees has its unique ________ ________.

cultural traditions

36

What is a cultural zone?

neighboring communities come to share certain tool-using traditions, while remaining unique in their particular repertoire

37

How do cultural zones spread?

immigrant females will bring with them the knowledge acquired in their natal community, and through the spread of such knowledge within the group they join

38

The experience of raising infant chimpanzees taught Matsuzawa what key lesson?

-importance of the mother-infant bond
-importance of the community in which an infant chimpanzee grows up and acquires the skills and knowledge unique to the group

39

What steps did Matsuzawa and his team make to simulate the community as a whole for chimpanzees in order to address observational learning, imitation, deception, and teaching?

1. modify the physical environment in terms of animal welfare and environmental enrichment
2. new paradigm for cognitive development in chimps: "participant observation"-researchers interact with chimps directly in own space, triadic relationship between mother chimp, infant chimp, and researcher