Flashcards in Primates: Brains Deck (43):
Which species has the largest of any primate brain?
What part of the primate brain is especially developed?
cortex (esp visual)
True/False: It is a mistake to think all cetaceans or all primates have similar brains.
What part of the human brain particularly expanded in comparison to other primates?
What is special about the midbrain?
where visual tracking and auditory tracking combine; map localization with visual, direct head to source
Info on identity of sound in _____ sulcus, ______ to A1; connecting to _____ ______
anterior (rostral), adjacent; Frontal Lobe
Info on location of sound in ______, close to _____
posterior (Caudal); Parietal
The visual system in primates is a very _____ process
Most connections into from visual system go direct to ________
Explain basic vision pathway in primates
1. eyes => LGN => V1 of Cortex (rear of occipital lobe, aka Striate Cortex) => in cortex, topological maps of retinal surface, fovea greatly magnified
Explain the crossover that happens in primate brains when seeing something
right visual field of both retinas go to left of LGN, processed by left brain
left visual field of both retinas go to right of LGN, processed by right brain
The left _____ _____ maps primarily on the right visual field, Right maps primarly left
What does the superior colliculus do?
sends visual motion info to midbrain
What are the two pathways of the visual system?
Dorsal (Where/How) and Ventral (Who/What)
What is the Penfield Map? Where is it located?
shows face, hands magnified, located in S1
What does the primary motor cortex do in primates?
commands motor neurons in Brainstem and Spinal Cord to move body
pre central gyrus in frontal lobe, across central sulcus from somatosensory cortex
What does the premotor cortex do?
active during "preparation to move", plans activity
What is the mirror cell system?
coactivation of Premotor (F5) and Parietal Cortex in primates, mirror cell system is activated when primate sees own hands or other's hands performing task
Why is the mirror cell system critical?
-enables understanding action via translation visual input into motor plan
-mediates imitation, observational learning
How is the olfactory system used in primates?
decision making, evaluating/learning about/reacting to what matters
What role does the Orbito frontal cortex serve?
-descending and reciprocal fibers to limbic system
-increased, inhibitory connections to limbic system (esp. higher primates)
-evaluate, set priorities, delay gratification, suppress learned inappropriate behavior
What role does the Anterior Cingular Cortex (ACC) have?
-part of limbic system for +/- evaluation
-social assessment of others: active in empathy, deception, guilt, embarrassment, etc.
What does the amygdala do?
generating and interpret facial expressions of emotion
(part of circuit for orbitofrontal for "Theory of MInd")
What is the Theory of MInd
ability to postulate what others thinking, feeling
What does the Frontal Insula do?
-part of pathway between amydala and orbitofrontal
-sensory projection for taste, generates disgust/desire
-spontaneous production and interpretation of emotional expression
What are Von Economo Neurons?
-neurons with long, unbranched, symmetrical processes
-large cells for rapid transmission of minimal local info to other areas
-fast intuitive judgements of social situations (?)
Who has Von Economo Neurons?
ONLY apes and humans
Where are the Von Economo Neurons found?
ACC and FI
What is the role of the medulla in the primate brain?
localize sound sources
What does the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus do for the primate brain?
project auditory information to cortex
What is the limbic system?
-does much of decision making, smell mediated
What does the Anterior Cingulate Cortex concerned with?
part of limbic system; concerned with social assessment (of self and others)
involved in risk assessment and empathy, deception, guilt, etc.
What do the olfactory bulbs do?
smell-drives much of mammalian behavior
What does the amygdala do?
role in generating and interpreting facial expressions of emotion
*part of circuit with orbitofrontal for Theory of Mind*
What is the orbitofrontal cortex?
a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitive processing of decision making
What part of the audition pathway is monaural?
Inputs to cochlear nucleus
What part of the audition pathway is binaural?
everything after cochlear nucleus
Where is A1 located?
What is V1?
topological map of retina (preserves the spatial relationships of sensory surface)
Anterior Cingulate has reciprocal actions with the _____ ________
The orbitofrontal cortex has reciprocal action with the _____
What is another name for Limbic System?
"Rhiencephalon" ("Nose Brain")