Primates: Brains Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Primates: Brains Deck (43):
1

Which species has the largest of any primate brain?

HUMANS

2

What part of the primate brain is especially developed?

cortex (esp visual)

3

True/False: It is a mistake to think all cetaceans or all primates have similar brains.

TRUE

4

What part of the human brain particularly expanded in comparison to other primates?

neo cortex

5

What is special about the midbrain?

where visual tracking and auditory tracking combine; map localization with visual, direct head to source

6

Info on identity of sound in _____ sulcus, ______ to A1; connecting to _____ ______

anterior (rostral), adjacent; Frontal Lobe

7

Info on location of sound in ______, close to _____

posterior (Caudal); Parietal

8

The visual system in primates is a very _____ process

cerebral

9

Most connections into from visual system go direct to ________

forebrain

10

Explain basic vision pathway in primates

1. eyes => LGN => V1 of Cortex (rear of occipital lobe, aka Striate Cortex) => in cortex, topological maps of retinal surface, fovea greatly magnified

11

Explain the crossover that happens in primate brains when seeing something

right visual field of both retinas go to left of LGN, processed by left brain

left visual field of both retinas go to right of LGN, processed by right brain

12

The left _____ _____ maps primarily on the right visual field, Right maps primarly left

SUPERIOR COLLICULUS

13

What does the superior colliculus do?

sends visual motion info to midbrain

14

What are the two pathways of the visual system?

Dorsal (Where/How) and Ventral (Who/What)

15

What is the Penfield Map? Where is it located?

shows face, hands magnified, located in S1

16

What does the primary motor cortex do in primates?

commands motor neurons in Brainstem and Spinal Cord to move body

pre central gyrus in frontal lobe, across central sulcus from somatosensory cortex

17

What does the premotor cortex do?

active during "preparation to move", plans activity

18

What is the mirror cell system?

coactivation of Premotor (F5) and Parietal Cortex in primates, mirror cell system is activated when primate sees own hands or other's hands performing task

19

Why is the mirror cell system critical?

-enables understanding action via translation visual input into motor plan
-mediates imitation, observational learning

20

How is the olfactory system used in primates?

decision making, evaluating/learning about/reacting to what matters

*emotional/motivational system

21

What role does the Orbito frontal cortex serve?


-descending and reciprocal fibers to limbic system
-increased, inhibitory connections to limbic system (esp. higher primates)
-evaluate, set priorities, delay gratification, suppress learned inappropriate behavior

22

What role does the Anterior Cingular Cortex (ACC) have?

-part of limbic system for +/- evaluation
-social assessment of others: active in empathy, deception, guilt, embarrassment, etc.

23

What does the amygdala do?

generating and interpret facial expressions of emotion

(part of circuit for orbitofrontal for "Theory of MInd")

24

What is the Theory of MInd

ability to postulate what others thinking, feeling

25

What does the Frontal Insula do?

-part of pathway between amydala and orbitofrontal
-sensory projection for taste, generates disgust/desire
-spontaneous production and interpretation of emotional expression

26

What are Von Economo Neurons?

-neurons with long, unbranched, symmetrical processes
-large cells for rapid transmission of minimal local info to other areas
-fast intuitive judgements of social situations (?)

27

Who has Von Economo Neurons?

ONLY apes and humans

28

Where are the Von Economo Neurons found?

ACC and FI

29

What is the role of the medulla in the primate brain?

localize sound sources

30

What does the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus do for the primate brain?

project auditory information to cortex

31

What is the limbic system?

-does much of decision making, smell mediated

32

What does the Anterior Cingulate Cortex concerned with?

+/- Evaluator

part of limbic system; concerned with social assessment (of self and others)

involved in risk assessment and empathy, deception, guilt, etc.

33

What do the olfactory bulbs do?

smell-drives much of mammalian behavior

34

What does the amygdala do?

role in generating and interpreting facial expressions of emotion

*part of circuit with orbitofrontal for Theory of Mind*

35

What is the orbitofrontal cortex?

a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitive processing of decision making

36

What part of the audition pathway is monaural?

Inputs to cochlear nucleus

37

What part of the audition pathway is binaural?

everything after cochlear nucleus

38

Where is A1 located?

temporal lobe

39

What is V1?

topological map of retina (preserves the spatial relationships of sensory surface)

40

Anterior Cingulate has reciprocal actions with the _____ ________

frontal insula

41

The orbitofrontal cortex has reciprocal action with the _____

amygdala

42

What is another name for Limbic System?

"Rhiencephalon" ("Nose Brain")

43

Where is the Insula?

media surface of lateral fissure between temporal and frontal lobes