Primates and Cetaceans Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Primates and Cetaceans Deck (164)
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1

What is ethology?

the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionary adaptive trait

2

How many species are there of primates?

80

3

What are the key cognitive features that characterize most primates?

1. Large Brains
2. Hand-eye coordination
3. Few Long-Dependent Young
4. High Social
5. Playful

4

What are the two major divisions of primates?

Prosimians and Anthropoids

5

True/False: Prosimians do not have opposable thumbs.

FALSE; All primates have opposable thumbs

6

True/False: Anthropoids are the closest to the original, ancestral primates.

FALSE; prosimians are the closest to ancestral

7

Where are the prosimians found?

Madagascar, Australia, and Africa

8

What facial features do prosimians have?

projecting snout, wet noses, tethered lips

9

What is the latin name for the gorilla?

Gorilla gorilla (ITALICIZED)

10

What do the prosimians' facial features mean about their behavior?

wet noses = depend more on smell than NHPs
tethered lips = less facial expression than other NHPs

11

True/False: Prosimians are smaller brained than other primates.

TRUE

12

Describe the behavior and sleeping patterns of prosimians.

Some are social others are relatively solitary, and most of these are nocturnal

13

What do prosimians eat?

insects; they are insectivores

14

What are anthropoids sometimes called?

True monkeys

15

(True/False) Anthropoids are not social at all.

FALSE; most are highly social

16

What are the two major divisions of the of the Anthropoids?

1. New World Monkeys
2. Old World Monkeys and Apes

17

What are the physical features of anthropoids?

flat aces, dry noses, and more dexterous hands

18

Where are the New World Monkeys typically found?

Mexico, Central and South America

19

What is a unique tail trait that New World monkeys have?

Prehensile tails; hook grip and capable of grasping

20

True/False: All New World monkeys are diurnal (active during the day).

TRUE; except for owl monkey

21

True/False: No New World monkeys are arboreal.

False; All New World monkeys are arboreal.

22

What is unique about the Capuchin monkeys?

1. largest relative brain size (per body weight) of any New World Monkey
2. only NWM that regularly uses tools
3. forms social coalitions and other complex social relationships
4. Best NW dexterity

23

What do capuchins eat?

patchy, ripe fruit; places higher cognitive demands than all-leaf diet

24

What niches are New World Monkeys found in?

variety of niches: follivory, frugivory, insectivory, etc.

25

What is the latin name for Capuchins?

Cebus (italicized)

26

Which Anthropoid division do humans belong in?

Old World Monkeys and Apes

27

Where are the OWMs found?

Africa, Asia (Humans are everywhere)

28

What are ischial callosities and why are they important?

butt pads that OWMs have; allows them to sit up and use hands

29

True/False: OWMs have better opposability and better precision grip than NWMs.

TRUE

30

What physical feature distinguishes OWMs?

long nostrils; malleable faces