Flashcards in Primates and Cetaceans Deck (164)
What is ethology?
the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionary adaptive trait
How many species are there of primates?
What are the key cognitive features that characterize most primates?
1. Large Brains
2. Hand-eye coordination
3. Few Long-Dependent Young
4. High Social
What are the two major divisions of primates?
Prosimians and Anthropoids
True/False: Prosimians do not have opposable thumbs.
FALSE; All primates have opposable thumbs
True/False: Anthropoids are the closest to the original, ancestral primates.
FALSE; prosimians are the closest to ancestral
Where are the prosimians found?
Madagascar, Australia, and Africa
What facial features do prosimians have?
projecting snout, wet noses, tethered lips
What is the latin name for the gorilla?
Gorilla gorilla (ITALICIZED)
What do the prosimians' facial features mean about their behavior?
wet noses = depend more on smell than NHPs
tethered lips = less facial expression than other NHPs
True/False: Prosimians are smaller brained than other primates.
Describe the behavior and sleeping patterns of prosimians.
Some are social others are relatively solitary, and most of these are nocturnal
What do prosimians eat?
insects; they are insectivores
What are anthropoids sometimes called?
(True/False) Anthropoids are not social at all.
FALSE; most are highly social
What are the two major divisions of the of the Anthropoids?
1. New World Monkeys
2. Old World Monkeys and Apes
What are the physical features of anthropoids?
flat aces, dry noses, and more dexterous hands
Where are the New World Monkeys typically found?
Mexico, Central and South America
What is a unique tail trait that New World monkeys have?
Prehensile tails; hook grip and capable of grasping
True/False: All New World monkeys are diurnal (active during the day).
TRUE; except for owl monkey
True/False: No New World monkeys are arboreal.
False; All New World monkeys are arboreal.
What is unique about the Capuchin monkeys?
1. largest relative brain size (per body weight) of any New World Monkey
2. only NWM that regularly uses tools
3. forms social coalitions and other complex social relationships
4. Best NW dexterity
What do capuchins eat?
patchy, ripe fruit; places higher cognitive demands than all-leaf diet
What niches are New World Monkeys found in?
variety of niches: follivory, frugivory, insectivory, etc.
What is the latin name for Capuchins?
Which Anthropoid division do humans belong in?
Old World Monkeys and Apes
Where are the OWMs found?
Africa, Asia (Humans are everywhere)
What are ischial callosities and why are they important?
butt pads that OWMs have; allows them to sit up and use hands
True/False: OWMs have better opposability and better precision grip than NWMs.