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Flashcards in The Emergence of Culture Deck (47):

Describe primate and cetacean ontogeny.

primates and cetaceans characterized by prolonged immaturity and long life


What does primate cetacean ontogeny indicate?

prolonged dependence on learning; a lot to learn to become competent (complex!) adults
-learn by observing and participating in shared practices


Apes sexually mature at ~____ years



Tigers sexually mature at only ~____ years



Groups have __________ and different ______ at different stages

variety of age-class models, rules of behavior


culture is _____ _______

socially transmitted


Which animals have been shown to have menopause?

-few cetaceans (pilot whales, orcas)


What is the significance of some animals have menopause? Why is it not expected?

-menopause indicates that long-lived matrons have knowledge, customs; grandmas have critical role in society

-unexpected because animals living longer than their reproductive time


How are orcas an example of changing traditions with matriarchal death?

old ladies in NW straights die, Orca pod finally takes more reasonable route


Rules change through _______


i.e. sex, how adults behave, how children behave, etc


When is a practice cultural?

when it varies within population of same species


Evidence for cultural traditions best if population differences cannot what?

be attributed to ecological differences alone

e.g Nuts and stones available in 2 chimp habitats, but only one population uses stones to crack nuts
-otherwise may more likely be individual trial and error learning (vs. socially mediated transmission)


Why is evidence for cultural traditions in animals controversial?

some models require "human specific" cognition (e.g. intentional imitation, teaching)--???
-doesn't compare to our level


How are cebus an example of cultural traditions? (in relation to hunting)

cooperative hunting seen in some groups of Cebus, never in others (rare)


How are Japanese Macaques an example of cultural traditions?

Imo washed seweet potatoes, float seeds from sand
-spread laterlaly to her friends, then to their mothers, then to others, except oldest adult males


How are chimps an example of cultural traditions? (in reference to nut cracking)

Tai forest use stones
Gombe use logs
Mahale don't


How are chimps an example of cultural traditions? (in reference to hunting)

In tai have specific roles; some are drivers, some are catchers, etc. due in base to bushy forest

kibale loosely organized

Gombe don't


How are chimps an example of cultural traditions? (in reference to termite fishing)

in Bossou termite fish

in Gombe do it different

in Mahale hunt fish although termites available


How are cebus an example of cultural traditions? (in relation to trust building games)

finger in eye, suck fur, etc

(tradition lives on although previous cebus' died)


What is considered basic social repertoire?

cultural-largely learned through observation/coparticipation


What are examples of basic social repertoire?

-how and when to groom, play with, support, oppose, when, etc
-includes arbitrary practices-like arm clasp grooming in certain populations
-Rhesus (typically despotic) raised with Stumptails acts egalitarian
-Harlow isolates do not know how to mate, parent, etc


Describe evidence for cultural transmission in cetaceans in relation to feed strategies.

-practiced differently by same species in different areas (e.g. sponges, crater fishing, etc.)
-(Mann et all 2009) shows Shark Bay sponging, practiced by a few, passed to next generation


Describe differents in social organization in cetaceans.

-same species can show differences in different regions (2 (Florida) v. 3 (Austrailian) coalition partners)


Describe how orcas exhibit occasional distinctive behaviors. ("arbitrary weirdness")

-orca "fads" (carry fish bits), shore lived (e.g. 2 ays) practiced by large subset of animals
-orca greeting ceremony by well established pods meeting after a long time (neighboring groups line up to head, silent til all in line, then sudden noisy interaction)


Explain the meaning of the phrase "monkey see, monkey do."

Primates, especially youngsters, have strong tendency to observe, and do generally what others are doing


Explain synchrony and imitation in primates.

doing with mom, learn from synchornous activity, experiments suggest better at "emulating" observed outcome than imitating particulars of how


Give examples of experiments on primates involving synchrony and imitation.

-w/ "artificial fruit" (puzzle box), NHPs more likely to mimic outcome vs. Human mimic means
-in other "Do as I do" experiments, chimps were able to mimic some novel actions


Give examples of how primates around humans perform routine activities.

Rehabilitant Orangutans make fires, do laundry, launch boats, etc.


Give examples of how cetaceans exhibit synchrony and imitation.

Captive Orca tank mates retained some calls from wild pods, i nfant learned some, all devel'd some new
-trained animals sometimes imitate "bridge" whistle to reward selves; Occasionally other human or env. sound


Which cetacean has the most diverse natural whistle repertoire?

Belugas; frequently mimic man made whistles


What was the lab bottlenose Phoenix taught?

-computer-generated "language" spontaneously mimicked sounds
-trained to mimic other sounds on command, although not with long lasting success
-tended to match freq modulation (contour) best, did some temporal compression and expansion


(True/False): All primates and cetaceans are enculturated.

True. Just to their own cultures.


All humans are _____ _______

human enculturated


In captivity, can see _______ and ______ motor imitation in cetaceans

spontaneous and trained


Give examples of spontaneous cetacean motor imitation.

performing animals sometimes learn other's behaviors without training
-imitate humans: scrape window w/tool, release milk like smoke, etc. , imitate otehr species: e.g. Flap flipper likes seal, swim upsidedown, attempt to mate, etc.


Give examples of cetacean trained motor imitation.

-bottlenose can be taught a mimic cue, imitate behavior modeled by human or other dolphin
-best success w/juv; existing social relations may constrain (e.g. Sub mimic dom, but not reverse)
-can also be taught cue to "repeat" = mimic self


What is pedagogy?

expert actively intervenes in learning process of novice

-corrects errors, demonstrates, slows/orients actions to novice's perspective, suit to stage of learning, etc.
-some argue pedagogy requires ToM (Expert must model current/changing mental state of Novice)


There is ______ ______ whether pedagogy occurs in nonhumans most accept that at least ______ does

much controversy; scaffolding

e.g. Chimp nut cracking observed for hundreds of hours, only 3(?) direct interventions in juv learning


What is scaffolding?

expert provides opportunities for novice to learn, but does not direct/modify process

e.g. mother cat catches, wounds mouse, then sets it loose near kittens so they can chase


Give examples of teaching (scaffolding?) in cetaceans.

(combination of co-action/imitation and scaffolding)
-e.g. spotted dolphin mother crater fishes,calf buzzes also, mother catch and release fish; moms chase prey longer and orient to it more freq in presence of calves than when forage w/out
-Orca expert pushes novice onto (& later off of) beach toward seals, and/or shares prey, some data support that such "apprenticeship" leads to earlier solitary success by young


Give examples of scaffolding (teaching?) in primates.

1. orangutan mothers, paried with infant, provide thousands of examples of branch and food manipulation
2. chimp females are most frequent tool users, so young have much early exposure
-includes termite fishing, using stripped branch of borrect length and flexibility
-infants handle, chew, poke, sticks until develop successful technique
3. chimp nut-crackers share nuts w/infants, allow access to materials (hammer/anvil)
-when infant gets older, stop sharing > motivates it to learn to crack own nuts


Most NHP's practice "______" but only human enculturated practice "_______"

Most NHP's practice "Do as you do" but only human enculturated practice "Do as I do" (i.e. demonstrate)

e.g. sign language trained chimps will teach own offspring signs


Describe the things that human enculturated NHPs can do.

-language trained
-perform more like humans on many cognitive tests
-Triadic Object Use,
-Other complex cog (e.g. analogies, sums, etc.)


(True/False) Enculturation by own species is key to life as a primate



Describe the social hierarchy of Rhesus monkeys.

strict hierarchy
like caste society LIKE INDIANS


Describe the social hierarchy of stump tailed macaques.

egalitarian "less rigid society"


What are the temperament difference between Rhesus monkeys and stump tailed macaques?

rhesus = anxiety
stumptail = mellow