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Flashcards in ID Deck (40):
1

Histoplasmosis

Pulmonary/systemic dimorphic fungi
Mississippi/Ohio River valleys, bird/bat droppings
Path: Survives in M-Phages (smaller than RBC)
Tx: fluconazole/itraconazole

Histo lives in histiocytes

2

Blastomycosis

Pulmonary/systemic dimorphic fungi: inflammatory lung dz, broad dissemination. granulomatous nodules
East of mississippi, central Am
Path: broad-based budding (same size as RBC)
Tx: fluconazole/itraconazole

BBBB
Blast Broad based bud

3

Coccidioidomycosis

Pulmonary/systemic dimorphic fungi (NB is spherule, not yeast, in tissue): PNA and meningitis
SW, California, incr after earthquake
Path: spherule filled with endospores (larger than RBC)
Tx: fluconazole/itraconazole

I bruised my Coccyx after a Cali Earthquake and had to wear a Sphere cast

4

Paracoccidioidomycosis

Pulmonary/systemic dimorphic fungi
Latin America
Path: budding yeast with "captains wheel" formation. (much larger than RBC)
Tx: fluconazole/itraconazole

Captain Parasailed to Latin America

5

Tinea versicolor

Cutaneous mycoses caused by Malassezia furfur
hot/humid weather
damage to melanocytes
Path: "spaghetti and meatball" on KOH
Tx: topical miconazole, selenium sulfide

6

Candida albicans

Opportunistic infection (superficial or systemic)
thrush, vulvovaginitis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
Path: dimorphic yeast. pseudohyphae and budding yeasts at 20C, germ tubes at 37C
Tx: topical azole for vag. fluc or caspo for oral/esophageal. Fluc, ampho, or caspo for systemic

7

Aspirgillus

Invasive, especially in immunocomporomised and chronic granulomatous dz
ABPA: asthma/CF, post-TB aspergilloma
Some produce aflatoxins --> HCC
Acute angles, septate hyphae. non-dymorphic. Can form conidophore with spores

8

Cryptococcus

Opportunistic. Meningitis, cryptococcosis
Soil, pigeon droppings.
Path: Sabouraud's agar, India ink. Latex agglutination. "soap bubbles" in brain
Tx: ampho/flucytosine

9

Mucor/rhizopus

Opportunistic: DKA, leukemia
Rhinocerebral, frontal lobe abscesses
Headache, facial pain, black necrotic exchar, CN
Path: irregular, broad, nonseptate hyphae at wide angles

10

Pneumocystis jirovecii

Opportunistic: PCP in AIDS at CD4< 200
Path: disc-shaped yeast on methenamine silver stain
Tx: TMPSMX, pentamidine, dapsone.
PPx at CD4< 200

11

Sporothrix schenkii

Sporotrichosis. Rose gardener's dz. Local pustule with nodules along lymphatics.
Path: cigar-shaped budding yeast
Tx: itraconazole or potassium iodide

12

Giardia

Bloating, flatulance, foul-smelling diarrhea in campers/hikers. Transmitted by cysts in water
Path: trophozoites or cysts in water
Tx: metronidazole

13

Entamoeba histolica

Amebiasis: bloody diarrhea (dysentery), liver abscess (anchovy paste exudate), RUQ pain. Flask-shaped ulcer if submucosal colonic abscess ruptures
Path: trophozoite (with intracellular RBCs) or multi-nucleated cysts in stool
Tx: metronidazole, iodoquinol for asymptomatic cyst passers

Don't dys EntaAnchovy, he drinks from a flask, gobbles RBCs, but hates iodine and flagyl.

14

Cryptosporidium

Severe diarrhea in AIDS
Mild watery diarrhea in noncompromised
Path: cysts on acid fast stain
Tx: filtered water, nitazoxanide in AIDS

15

Toxoplasma

Protozoa -CNS
Brain abscesses in HIV (ring enhancing)
Triad: chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcification
Transmitted by cysts in meat or cat feces
Dx: serology, bx
Tx: sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine

16

Naegleria fowleri

Protozoa - CNS
Rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis
Freshwater lakes (Nalgene): enters via cribiform plate
Dx: amoebas in spinal fluid
Tx: Ampho but not usually efective

17

Trypanosoma brucei, gambiense, rhodesiense

Protozoa -CNS
African sleeping sickness
LAD, recurring fever (antigenic variation), somnolence, coma
vector: tsetse fly (painful bite)
Dx: smear
Tx: Suramin for blood, melarsopol for CNS
"sure is nice to go to sleep. melatonin is helpful"

18

Plasmodium Vivax/Ovale

Malaria: fever, headache, anemia, splenomegaly
Path: smear. Trophozoite ring, RBC schizont with merozoites
48 hr cycle !!!
dominant form (hypnozoite) in liver
Tx: chloroquine (mefloquin if resistant) add primaquine (test for G6PD)

48 hypnotism? PROVe it to me

19

Plasmodium falciparum

Malaria: fever, headache, anemia, splenomegaly
Path: smear. Trophozoite ring, RBC schizont with merozoites
Severe, irregular fever patterns, parasitized RBCs occlude capillaries in brain (cerebral malaria), kidneys, lung
Tx: chloroquine (mefloquin if resistant) use IV quinidine in life-threatening (test for G6PD)

20

Plasmodium malariae

Malaria: fever, headache, anemia, splenomegaly
Path: smear. Trophozoite ring, RBC schizont with merozoites
72 hr cycle (quartan)
Tx: chloroquine (mefloquin if resistant) use IV quinidine in life-threatening (test for G6PD)

21

Babesia

Protozoa -- heme
babesiosis: fever and hemolytic anemia
NE USA
Asplenia inc risk of severe dz
vector: ixodes tick (same as borrelia burgdorferi)
Smear: ring form, maltese cross
PCR
Tx: atovaqone + Azithro

Babes like Limes in Church where they Atone under the Cross.

22

Trypanosoma cruzi

Protozoa
Chagas dz: dilated cardiomyopathy, megacolon, megaesophagus.
South america
Vector: reduviid bug (kissing): painless bite
dx: smear
Tx: nifurtimox

I took a Tryp to mexico and Kissed a girl, now i'm blowing up and am Furtive

23

Leishmania donovani

Protozoa
visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar)
spiking fever, HSM, pancytopenia
vector: sandfly
dx: mphages containing amastigotes
Tx: sodium stibogluconate

the Goats on a Leash travel in Flies and live in macrophages, but hate Sties

24

Enterobius vermicularis

pinworm (nematode)
Eggs in food
anal pruritus (scotch tape test)
Tx: bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate

25

Ascaris lumbridoides

giant roundworm (nematode
fecal-oral
intestinal infection
Tx: bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate

26

Strongyloides stercoralis

nematode
larvae in soil penetrate skin
Intestinal infection: V/D anemia
Tx: ivermectin or albendazole

Strong: penetrate skin and keep up strength by eating RBCs

27

Ancylostoma duodenale, necator americanus

hookworms (nematodes)
Larvae penetrate skin
Intestinal infxn --> anemia from sucking blood
Tx: bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate

Treat worms with BEND with bendazoles

28

Dracunculus medinesnsis

guinea worm -- nematode
drinking water
skin inflammation and ulceration
Tx: slow extraction of worm

29

Onchocerca volvulus

nematode
vector: female blackfly
hyperpigmented skin and river blindness
Tx: ivermectin

Niver get bit by the blackfly down by the river while looking for Chonch; you'll go blind.

30

Loa loa

nematode
swelling in skin, worm in conjunctiva
vector: deer, horse, mango fly
Tx: diethylcarbamazine

wo-ah wo-ah there's a worm in your eye

31

Wuchereria bancrofti

elephantiasis: blocked lymphatics (9mos- 1 yr)
vector: mosquito
tx: diethylcarbamazine

Bankrupt elephants hate CARBon taxing mosquitos

32

toxocara canis

visceral larva migrans
Roundworm. From dogs. hepatomegaly, eye dz, blindness, myocarditis
eggs
tx: albendazole or mebendazole

33

Nematode routes of infxn mnemonic

You'll get sick if you EAT these. These get into your feet from the SANd
ingested -- Enterobius, Ascaris, Trichinella
Cutaneous -- Strongyloides, Ancylostoma, Necator

34

Taenia solium

Cestodes (tapeworm)
Ingestion of larvae encysted in undercooked pork.
Dz: intestinal infxn, cysticercosis, neurocysticercosis
Tx: Praziquantel; bendazoles for neurocysteicercosis

if you PIG out in the sun you will get TAN, then turn into a PRAZin, get the BENDs, and fry your brain

35

Diphyllobathrium latum

Cestode (tapeworm)
Ingestion from raw freshwater fish
Dz: B12 deficiency --> anemia
Tx: praziquantel

get BLASTED with fishy BATHwater (megaloblastic anemia, BATHrium)

36

Echinococcus granulosus

cestode (tapeworm)
ingestion of eggs from dog feces
Liver cysts, anaphylaxis if antigens released (preinject with ethanol)
tx: bendazoles

Buy EchCANococcus some EtOH before you take it out

37

Schistosoma

trematode (fluke)
liver and spleen granulomas, fibrosis, inflammation
Chronic infection --> SCC of bladder
vector: snails
Tx: praziquantel

if you eat SNAIL SHIT with your Prazins you'll be PEEING BLOOD

38

Clonorchis sinensis

Trematode (fluke)
undercooked fish
biliary tract inflamm --> pigmented gallstones, cholangiocarcinoma
Tx: praziquantel

It's a SIN to eat BLACK (pigment stones) FISH with Prazins

39

Paragonimus westermani

Trematode (fluke)
undercooked crab meat
Lung inflammation and secondary bacterial infxn, with hemoptysis
Tx: praziquantel

Western man likes to cough blood onto his crab

40

most common bug prostatitis

E Coli!