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Flashcards in ID - viruses Deck (31):
1

Reassortment

Segmented viruses (e.g. flu) exchanging segments. Cause of pandemics

2

Complementation

1 of 2 viruses infecting same cell has non-functioning mutation. Other virus "complements" by making protein that serves both

3

Phenotypic mixing

Simultaneous infxn of cell with 2 viruses. Genotype A partially or completely coated with surface proteins of B. proteins determine tropism, but infect with A's genome

4

Recombinant vaccines

HBV (HBsAg), HPV (6, 11, 16, 18)

5

RNA viral genomes mnemonic

All RNA viruses are ssRNA except reovirus.All replicate in cytoplasm except flu and retrovirus.(+) stranded RNA viruses are...I went to a retro (retrovirus) toga (togavirus) party, where I drank flavored (flavivirus) Corona (coronavirus) and ate hippy (hepevirus) California (calicivirus) pickles (picornavirus)

6

Naked viruses and nuclear membrane virus

Naked: Papillomavirus, Adeno, picorna, polyoma, calcivirus, parvovirus, reovirus, hepevirusGive PAPP smears and CPR to a naked Heppy. All enveloped viruses are from plasma membrane, except herpesvirus (nuclear)

7

DNA virus rules

HHAPPPPy viruses -- Hepadna (HBV), Herpes, Adeno, Pox, Parvo, Papilloma, Polyoma. Parvo is only ssDNA. papilloma and polyoma are circular, supercoiled. Hepadna is circular, incomplete. All others are linear. Pox is complex, all others are icosahedralPox replicated in cytoplasm (has own DNA-dependente RNApol). All others in nucleus

8

Herpesvirus family

dsDNA, linearenveloped ( nuclear membrane)HSV-1: oral/genital, keratoconjunctivits, temporal lobe encephalitisHSV-2: genital/oralVZV (HHV-3): chickenpox, zosterEBV (HHV-4): mono, Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Latent in B Cells. Positive Monospot. Atypical lymphos with "hugging" of RBCs.CMV (HHV-5): infxn in AIDS/transplant (retinitis), congenital defects, mono with negative monospot. "owl's eye" inclusions. latent in monocytes.HHV-6: roseolaHHV-7: roseola (less common)HHV-8: Kaposi's sarcoma

9

Adenovirus

dsDNA, linear non-enveloped Febrile pharyngitis, acute hemorrhagic cystitis, PNA, conjunctivitis

10

Parvovirus B19

ssDNA, linear, negative strand (smaller DNA virus)non-envelopedSCD kids: aplastic crisiskids: slapped cheek rash, fetus: hydrops fetalis, aduls: adults: pure RBC aplasia and RA-like Sx

11

HPV

PapillomavirusdsDNA -- circularNon-envelopedwarts (1, 2, 6, 11) CIN, cancer (16, 18)

12

polyomaviruses

dsDNA, circularnon-envelopedJC -- PML in HIVBK -- transplant pts, kidney

13

poxvirus

dsDNA, linear (largest)envelopedSmallpoxVaccinia -- cowpox molluscum contagiosum

14

Reovirus family

dsRNA linearnon envelopedicosahedral capsidColtivirus -- colorado tick fever (arbovirus)Rotaviurs -- #1 cause of fatal diarrhea in kids. Day-care, winter, kindergarten. Villous destruction --> decreased Na/K absorption. Routine Vaccination

15

picornavirus

ssRNA linear, (+)non-envelopedicosahedralRNA makes 1 large polypeptide that is cleaved by proteases into functional proteins. All are enteroviruses except rhinoPERCH:Poliovirus -- Salk IPV, Sabin OPVEchovirus -- aseptic meningitisRhinovirus -- common cold. >100 types. acid labileCoxsackievirus -- aseptic meningitis, herpangina (mouth blisters, fever), hand/foot/mouth dz, myocarditisHAV-- fecal-oral, short incubation, asymptomatic/acute, no carriers

16

HEV

hepevirusssRNA, linear (+)nonenvelopedicosahedralfecal-oral, especially waterborne epidemicsshort incubation, high mortality in pregnant women(Enteric, Epidemic, Expectant moms)no carrier state

17

Norovirus

CalicivirusssRNA linear (+)non-envelopedicosahedralviral gastroenteritis

18

Flaviviruses

ssRNA, linear (+)icosahedralEnvelopedHCV -- carrier state, long incubation, cirrhosis, HCC (chronic inflammation)Yellow Fever - arbovirus, Aedes mosquito. monkey or human reservoir. high fever, black vomitus, jaundice (yellow)Dengue -- arboSt louis encephalitis -- arboWest nile -- arbo

19

Togavirus

ssRNA, linear (+)envelopedicosahedralRubella -- (german measles) fever, post-auricular LAD, arthralgias, fine rash starting on head and moving down. One of the TORCHS infxnsEEE -- arboWEE -- arbo

20

Retrovirus family

ssRNA, linear (+)envelopedhave reverse transcriptaseHTLV (icosahedral) causes T cell leukemiaHIV

21

Coronavirus

ssRNA, linear (+)envelopedhelicalcommon cold, SARS

22

Influenza

orthomyxovirusssRNA, linear (-), segmentedhelicalhemagglutinin -- viral entryneuraminidiase -- progeny releaseGenetic shift -- pandemicsGenetic drift -- epidemics

23

Paramyxoviruses

ssRNA, linear (-), nonsegmentedenvelopedhelicalall contain F (fusion) protein, which causes respiratory epithelial cells to fuse and form multinucleated cells.Parainfluenza -- croupRSV -- bronchiolitis Tx with ribavirin. Palivizumab (anti-F) prevents PNA in premiesMeasles -- Cough, Coryza, Conjunctivitis, Koplik spots, descenting maculopapular rash. SSPE (years later), encephalitis, giant cell PNA. Rash includes hands and feet (contrast rubella)Mumps -- Parotitis, Orchitis, aseptic Meningitis. Can cause sterility

24

Rabies

rhabdovirusssRNA, linear (-)envelopedhelicalBullet-shaped viron. Negri bodies (cytoplasmic inclusions in neurons). Purkinje cells of cerebellum.Long incubationPost-exposure Tx: cleansing and vaccination +/- rabies IgRetrograde migration up nerve axonsFever, malaise --> agitation, photophobia, hydrophobia --> paralysis, coma --> death

25

Ebola

filovirusssRNA, linear (-)envelopedhelical

26

Arenaviruses

ssRNA, circular (-) 2 segmentsenvelopedhelicalLCMV -- lymphocytic choriomeningitisLassa fever encephalitis -- spread by mice

27

Bunyaviruses

ssRNA, (-), circular 3 segmentsEnvelopedHelicalCalifornia encephalitis -- arboSandfly/Rift Valley fever -- arboCrimean/Congo hemmorhagic fever -- arboHantavirus -- hemorrhagic fever, PNA

28

HDV

deltavirusssRNA, circular (-)Requires HBV co-infection --> worse prognosis

29

env gene

envelope proteins formed by cleavage of gp160gp120 -- attach to host CD4+ T cell. crosses placenta causing false (+) tests in babies born to HIV+ momsgp41 -- fusion and entry

30

gag gene

p24 -- capsid protein

31

pol gene

reverse transcriptase, aspart protease, integrase