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Flashcards in Immune System Dysregulation/Deficiency Deck (47)
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1

What are TWO pathologic conditions caused by a normal immune response?

tuberculosis (TB)
sepsis

2

_________ are conditions caused by DEFECTS in immune regulation

allergies

(Hygiene hypothesis)

3

_________ involve molecular mimicry and INFLAMMTION

autoimmune disorder

4

AIDS is an example of an _________

immunodeficiency

5

** _________ of the worlds population is INFECTED with MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS

1/3

6

** _________ % of the population has a LIFETIME RISK of developing ACTIVE TB

5-10%

7

** TUBERCULOSIS (TB) modifies the surface of the _________, so that it is UNABLE TO FUSE with the _________. Therefore, the organism can thrive and multiple in the MACROPHAGE

phagosome
lysosome

8

If a person RECOVERS from TB, the battle causes a release of _________ like IFNy that hyperactive macrophages

cytokines

9

_________ and _________ eliminate the invader when a person recovers from TB

macrophages
neutrophils

10

_________ is a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection

sepsis

11

SEPSIS occurs when chemicals released into the bloodstream fight the infection trigger _________ throughout the body

inflammation

12

SEPSIS is MOST COMMON and most dangerous in _________ people (2)

elderly
people with weak immune systems

13

** _________ secreted by macrophages can increase vascular CAPILLARY permeability, causing large amounts of fluid loss/blood volume loss and septic shock

tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

14

_________ stimulation can DECREASE macrophage release of TNF

vagal stimulation

15

OVER HALF of the US population suffers from _________ hypersensitivity reactions (which include most common ALLERGIES)

type I hypersensitivity

16

** ALLERGIES and ASTHMA are associated with a _________ bias

Th2

17

** Allergic (atopic) reactions produce large amounts of _________ antibodies and have a _________ bias

IgE
Th2

18

** NON-allergic responses produce _________ antibodies and have a _________ bias

IgA
Th1

19

** Overproduction of _________ antibodies in response of environmental antigens cause ALLERGIES

IgE

20

** During subsequent exposures, an allergen can crosslink IgE. This clustering sends a signal downstream promoting degranulation of MAST CELLS releasing _________, HEPARIN and other chemicals causing symptoms

histamine

21

MAST CELLS, basophils and eosinophils provide a defense against parasitic infections that are TOO LARGE to be PHAGOCYTIZED by _________ and _________

macrophages
neutrophils

22

MAST CELLS, BASOPHILS AND EOSINOPHILS should only degranulate is response to _________ binding to parasite

IgE

23

** A NEWBORN or infant exhibits a _________ bias

Th1

24

** A FETUS needs to be protected from the mother's immune system and is thought to have a _________ bias

Th2

25

** The _________ produces large quantities of IL-4 which causes the maternal and fetal HELPER T cells to become _________ bias

Placenta
Th2

26

What shifts a NEWBORN back to a Th1 bias?

contact with microbes
(especially those in the soil)

27

Children on farms, who have multiple older siblings and dogs have a LOWER incidence of _________ and _________

allergies
asthma

28

Allergy concordance in IDENTICAL TWINS is _________ %

50%

29

Claritin is a _________ blocker

histamine

30

Injecting increasing doses of crude extracts of allergens over the years gets B cells to class switch from IgE (allergies) to _________

IgG

31

Too many repeated injections of allergens may trigger iTregs with produce _________ that SUPPRESS IgE production

cytokines

32

** _________ results when a breakdown in the mechanisms meant to preserve tolerance of self is sever enough to cause a pathological condition

autoimmune disease

33

** AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE affects _________ % of the US population and is more common in WOMEN

5-7.5%

34

When lymphocytes have receptors that recognize their cognate antigen on the microbe, this is known as _________

molecular mimicry

35

Autoimmune diseases can be caused by _________ + _________

molecular mimicry
inflammation

36

** TB macrophages typically die via _________

necrosis

37

** If an self-reactive T cells are NOT continually re-stimulated in autoimmune diseases, they die via _________

apoptosis

38

** _________ reflexes control INFLAMMATION

Vagus (neural)

39

** Autoimmune diseases frequently follow _________ (2)

bacterial INFECTIONS
viral INFECTIONS

40

** What are TWO environmental factors associated with AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE?

microbial attack
environmental pollutants

41

** _________ must be present in order for AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE to develop

inflammation

42

The _________ hypothesis holds that after INFECTION, there might be enough similarity to a self-antigen to cause a response

mimicry hypothesis

43

** In SINGLE GENE MUTATIONS in non functional CD40 or CD40L cells, B cells are UNABLE to _________ and secrete mainly _________ antibodies

class switch
IgM

44

When neither B cells or T cells function, it is known as _________

severe immunodeficiency syndrome (SCIDS)

45

** AIDS knocks out immune function by attacking/targeting _________ cells (2 names)

T HELPER cells
(Th Cells)

46

Which cell types are infected by HIV-1? (3)

Helper T (Th) cells
macrophages
dendritic cells

47

What is the name of the treatment used for HIV patients?

Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment
(HAART)