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1

The goal of VACCINATION is best described by which of the following statements?

a. attempt to stimulate the innate immune system to create memory
b. attempt to stimulate the adaptive immune system to create memory
c. attempt to stimulate the neural control of immunity
d. attempt to stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune systems to create memory

attempt to stimulate the ADAPTIVE immune system to CREATE memory


(Book)

2

In humans, ANTACIDS are a potentially large source of exposure to which of the following?

a. mercury
b. thimerosol
c. aluminum
d. iron

aluminum

3

In order to create MEMORY KILLER T CELLS, which of the following must occur?

a. antigen coming to a secondary lymph organ via lymph or blood
b. antigen presenting cell must present the antigen on a MHC I
c. antigen presenting cell must present the antigen on a MHC II
d. infected cell must present the antigen on a MHC I

infected cell must present the antigen on a MHC I

4

MEMORY CTLs can be produced EFFICIENTLY even when NO immune system cells have been infected by the attacker.

a. true b. false

false

(attacker MUST INFECT the APC)

5

A VACCINE where ORGANISMS are CREATED and GENES are REMOVED that IMPAIR VIRULENCE and/or REPLICATION describes what type of vaccine?

a. live vaccine
b. attenuated vaccine
c. killed vaccine
d. recombinate vaccine

recombinate vaccine

(Attenuated/Live vaccines produce MEMORY CTLs/"spread immunity around")

6

NON-INFECTIOUS VACCINES will typically cause the production of MEMORY CTLs

a. true b. false

false

(memory killer T cells/CTLs are produced by INFECTION)

7

THIMEROSOL, a MERCURY containing preservative is typically found in what VACCINES today?

a. most childhood vaccines
b. some childhood vaccines
c. some influenza vaccines
d. all vaccines

some influenza vaccines

8

ALUMINUM ADJUVANTS stimulate the production of CYTOKINES.

a. true b. false

true

9

What is the function of an IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANT?

a. acts as an antigen
b. increase the immune response
c. kills the organism being vaccinated against
d. attenuates the organism being vaccinated against

increase the immune response

10

In the brain, which of the following statements regarding ALUMINUM is TRUE.

a. breaks down the integrity of the blood brain barrier
b. functions as an important cofactor in microglia
c. can inhibit brain inflammation by increasing nicotinic binding
d. can increase levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines

can increase levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines

11

What percentage of the world’s population is estimated to be INFECTED with MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS?

a. 5-10%
b. about 1/3
c. about ½
d. about 3/4

about 1/3

(5-10% are at risk of developing ACTIVE TB)

12

How does the TUBERCULOSIS (TB) organism potentially create PROBLEMS for MACROPHAGES?

a. inhibits macrophages ability to synthesize and secrete TNF
b. causes macrophage to undergo apoptosis
c. macrophage is unable to phagocytize organism
d. prevents phagosome from fusing with lysosome

prevents phagosome from fusing with lysosome

(Vitamin D could improve the outcome)

13

In SEPSIS, an OVERREACTION of the IMMUNE system, to a widespread INFLAMMATORY response, what CYTOKINE produced primarily by macrophages can INCREASE CAPILLARY PERMEABILITY leading to LOSS of BLOOD VOLUME and septic SHOCK?

a. tumor necrosis factor
b. interferon α
c. transforming growth factor β
d. histamine

tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

(HMGB1—downstream mediator that mediates inflammation)

14

What bias is associated with ALLERGY and ASTHMA?

a. Th1
b. Th2
c. Th17
d. Th0

Th2

15

Self-reactive antibodies against the ACETYLCHOLINE receptor prevents ACETYLCHOLINE from binding producing MUSCLE WEAKNESS describes which of the following?

a. lupus erythematosis
b. multiple sclerosis
c. myasthenia gravis
d. Guillain-Barre

myasthenia gravis

16

AUTOIMMUNE diseases frequently follow which of the following?

a. surgery
b. infection
c. exposure to radiation
d. drug side effect

infection

17

Many experts feel that the RISE in AUTOIMMUNE diseases over the last 30 years may be due to which of the following? (select TWO)

a. increase in stress
b. pollutants in environment
c. ionizing radiation
d. poor nutrition
e. microbial attack

pollutants in the environment
microbial attack

18

A healthy 6 month old INFANT with NO ALLERGIES typically has what Th bias?

a. Th0
b. Th1
c. Th2
d. Th17

Th1

19

What antibody is associated with ALLERGIES?

a. IgA b. IgE c. IgG d. IgM

IgE

20

In TUBERCULOSIS (TB) MACROPHAGES typically die via NECROSIS

a. true b. false

true

(When they die of necrosis, it creates damage)

21

What HYPERSENSITIVITY is associated with ALLERGIES?

a. type I
b. type II
c. type III
d. type IV

type I

22

All forms of HYPERSENSITIVITY require which of the following?

a. prior exposure to the antigen
b. Th2 bias
c. CTL memory
d. IgE

prior exposure to the antigen

23

What type HYPERSENSITIVITY is associated with CONTACT DERMATITIS, like POSION IVY?

a. type I
b. type II
c. type III
d. type IV

type IV

24

Deposition of ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN complexes causing INFLAMMATION is associated with what type of HYPERSENSITIVITY?

a. type I
b. type II
c. type III
d. type IV

type III

25

What is thought to allow the HIV-1 virus to EVADE the IMMUNE system and may also be the reason PREVENTING the development of an effective VACCINE against the virus?

a. high virulence
b. high mutation rate
c. attacks CTLs
d. disables the innate immune system

high mutation rate

26

Most of all human CANCERS are linked to VIRAL infections.

a. true b. false

false

(15-20% linked to VIRAL infection)

27

Our immune system evolved to deal with CANCER along with INFECTIOUS AGENTS.

a. true b. false

false

28

Which IMMUNE CELLS are most likely EFFECTIVE against certain types of CANCER?

a. CTLs
b. NK cells
c. neutrophils
d. dendritic cells

NK cells

29

What is found on the SURFACE of many CANCER cells that IMPAIRS the IMMUNE system’s ability to
DESTROY the ABERRANT cell?

a. CD4
b. B7
c. PD-L1
d. MPDL320A

PD-L1

30

CTLs typically provide SURVEILLANCE against MOST CANCERS.

a. true b. false

false

(macrophages provide surveillance)

31

Which of the following when STIMULATED, can SHUT DOWN INFLAMMATION by INHIBITING CYTOKINE RELEASE from MACROPHAGES?

a. vagus nerve
b. submucosal plexus
c. sympathetic chain ganglia
d. anterior pituitary

vagus nerve

(NOT DIRECT vagal stimulation, it is via the _________ ganglion)

32

What is the result of a SINGLE gene DEFECT leading to a NON-functional CD40 in B cells?

a. B cells unable to produce antibodies
b. B cells unable to divide
c. B cells unable to class switch
d. B cells unable to act as antigen presenting cells

B cells unable to class switch

33

Which condition knocks out IMMUNE FUNCTION by attacking T HELPER cells?

a. multiple sclerosis
b. TB
c. lupus erythematosus
d. AIDS

AIDS

34

NORMAL function of IgE is to act a GUIDANCE SYSTEM for which of the following cells, TARGETING its CHEMISTRY at LARGER PARASITES so they can be DESTROYED with MINIMAL collateral damage?

a. macrophages
b. mast cells
c. neutrophils
d. NK cells

mast cells

35

What percentage of the U.S. population is affected with some sort of AUTOIMMUNE disease?

a. 5 -7.5%
b. 15 – 20%
c. 50%
d. > 90%

5 - 7.5%

36

Immune system attack on MYELIN BASIC PROTEIN in the CNS best describes which of the following?

a. Rhumatoid arthritis
b. Myasthenia gravis
c. Multiple sclerosis
d. Guillain-Barre
e. Lupas

Multiple sclerosis

37

B and T cell receptors that have found their COGNATE ANTIGEN can cross react with other self –antigens. This many contribute to DEVELOPMENT of AUTOIMMUNE disease.

a. true b. false

true

38

In order for AUTOIMMUNE disease to develop, what else must be going on in the body?

a. Inflammation
b. Immunosuppression
c. Th2 bias shift
d. Hyperactivity of cholinergic parasympathetic

inflammation

39

Which of the following conditions is there NO effective VACCINE currently available?

a. Malaria
b. AIDS
c. Tuberculosis
d. Herpes simplex virus
e. All of the above

all of the above

40

+ In order to create T-Helper Cells, which of the following must occur?

a. antigen coming to a secondary lymph organ via lymph or blood
b. antigen presenting cell must present the antigen on a MHC I
c. antigen presenting cell must present the antigen on a MHC II
d. infected cell must present the antigen on a MHC I

antigen presenting cell must present the antigen on an MHC II

41

+ What percentage of the world’s population is estimated to be at risk of developing ACTIVE TB?

a. 5-10%
b. about 1/3
c. about ½
d. about 3/4

5-10%

42

+ A fetus typically has what Th bias?

a. Th0
b. Th1
c. Th2
d. Th17

Th2

43

+ Macrophages typically provide SURVEILLANCE against MOST CANCERS.

a. true b. false

true

44

+ It is estimated that VIRAL infections contribute to what percentage of all human CANCERS?

a. 5 -7.5%
b. 15 – 20%
c. 50%
d. > 90%

15-20%

45

+ Which of the following is a DOWNSTREAM mediator that MEDIATES INFLAMMATION?

a. tumor necrosis factor
b. interferon α
c. transforming growth factor β
d. histamine

Transforming growth factor B (TGFB)