under what conditions do T cells become anergic?
when it interacts with APC in absence of co-stimulatory interactions (CD28/B7)
which CDs do double positive thymocytes contain?
CD2, CD3, CD4 and CD8
somatic recombination occurs for which TCR chain first? where in the body is the T cell when this occurs?
it occurs in the thymus (cortex)
what factor activates NK cells? what cell secretes this factor? what do activated NK cells secrete and what is its role?
IL-12 activates NK cells. Dendritic cells (mostly) secrete this.
activated NK cells secrete IFNγ, which drives subset to form TH1 cells
what complements make up classical pathway C5 convertase? Alternative convertase?
classical C5 convertase: C4b2a3b
alternative C5 convertase: C3b3bBb
what are the constant regions associated with light chains?
kappa and lambda
what heavy chain constant regions exist? what antibodies do they form?
delta = IgD
mu = IgM
how many CD79a/b heterodimers are associated with a single mIg?
which factor initiates clonal expansion of naive CD4+ T cells? What is it secreted by and when? Where does it bind? What is this type of interaction called?
IL-2 initiates clonal expansion of naive CD4+ T cells. IL-2 is secreted by naive CD4+ T cells, after it is bound to antigen+APC.
IL-2 binds to the receptor on itself.
This is called cognate interaction.
what does C1 bind to? which results in better activation? why?
C1 binds to the Fc region of IgG and IgM
IgM leads to better activation because it is a pentamer
expression of what cytokines and adhesion molecules does macrophage secretion of IL-1 and TNFa induce?
VCAM-1, ICAM-1, MCP-1 (CCL-2), IL-8, E-selectin
what cells have FcγRI?
phagocytes; IgG binds to microbe, which then binds to FcγRI which signals the cell to perform phagocytosis
what cell is the most efficient APC?
in which stage is CD20 expressed? CD19? CD40?
CD20 = Pre-B cell
CD19 = Pro-B cell
CD40 = naive/mature B-cells
which 2 cells are fused to form hybridoma?
plasma cell and myeloma cell
which antibody isotype has the highest serum concentration?
what is another name for CD154? CD152?
CD154 = CD40L
CD152 = CTLA4
what type of isotypes can be generated following switch recombination?
IgE, IgG, and IgA
which antibody exists only in membrane bound form?
what complement receptors do mast cells and basophils have?
which is the only antibody isotype not secreted by plasma cells?
where in the body are B-cells located during VDJ recombination?
which antibody isotypes are associated with J chain?
IgA (dimer) and IgM (pentamer)
which isotype can cross the placenta?
what induces development of Th1 subset? Th2?
Th1 = IFNγ
Th2 = IL-4
which complement causes chemotaxis? of which cells?
C5a = neutrophils
what do Th2 cells secrete?
IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13 and TGF-B
which antibody is also known as reaginic antibody?
IgE (reaginic = allergic activity)
what does CD28 bind to? on what cell is CD28 located? what is another CD that binds to B7?
CD28 binds to B7 (CD80/86)
CD28 is located on the T cell
another CD that binds to B7 is CTLA-4 (CD152), which is inhibitory
what is the role of Properidin?
stabilizes C3bBb (C3 convertase)