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Flashcards in Tumor Immunology Deck (6)
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tumors that have severe ____ have a better prognosis than those that do not

tumors that have severe lympho-reticular filtration have a better prognosis than those that do not


describe the 2 types of tumor antigens

  • tumor associated antigens (TAA)
    • are more common and found on tumor cells and on normal cells during fetal life (oncofetal antigens) and after birth in selected organs at low concentration
  • tumor specific antigens (TSTA)
    • present only on tumor cells (usually viral induced) but not normal cells


describe the role of AFP and tumors

  • the normal range of AFP concentrations in humans is 0-20 ng/ml
    • this level rises considerable in patients with hepatomas and non-seminal testicular carcinomas
  • a 5-fold or higher rise in this protein is used for monitoring hepatomas and testicular cancers
  • AFP level may also be raised in some non-malignants conditions such as:
    • cirrhosis
    • hepatitis
    • other forms of liver damage


describe the role of carinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and tumors

  • CEA levels in normal people range up to 2.5 ng/ml
  • they increase significantly in certain malignancies, particularly colorectal cancers
  • they may also rise in some non-malignant conditions:
    • chronic cirrhosis
    • pulmonary emphysema
    • heavy smoking
  • levels that are 4-5 times normal have been used to predict recurrence of colorectal tumors


name viruses that are involved in human malignancies

  • HTLV-1 = leukemia
  • hepatitis-B virus = hepatic carcinoma
  • papilloma virus = cervical cancer


name the major human oncogenic viruses

  • DNA viruses
    • small DNA tumor viruses
      • HPV
      • SV40
      • adenovirus
    • herpesviruses (large)
      • EBV
      • Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)
  • RNA viruses
    • human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV1)
    • hepatitis virus C