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Flashcards in Parasites I and II Deck (39)
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1

name the top 4 parasitic infections

2

describe physiology and reproduciton of protozoa

  • physiologically simple: assimilate organic nutrients
    • acquired via pino or phagocytosis or enter via specialized site/structure
  • respiration is usually facultatively anaerobic
  • often have a survival form: cyst
    • if no cyst: host-host transmission or vector necessary
  • reproduction:
    • binary fission (most)
    • multiple fission with sexual reproduction (a few, e.g. Plasmodium spp)

3

name the ciliates 

move via cilia (protozoans)

  • B. coli

 

4

name the amoebas (sarcodina)

move via pseudopodias 

  • Acanthamoeba
  • Naegleria fowleri
  • E. histolytica

ANoEba 

5

name the flagellates (mastigophora)

protozoa that move via flagella

  • Giardia lambia
  • Leishmania spp.
  • Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Trypanosoma cruzi
  • Trypanosoma brucei

flaGeLlaTTTes

6

name the sporozoa

spore forming protozoa

  • Cryptosporidium 
  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • Plasmodium spp.

7

describe the physiology and reproduction of metazoa

  • either:
    • active ingestion of nutrients from host, or
    • passive adsorption
  • larger (cm to M) and multicellular
  • free-living or parasitic
  • no multiplication/replication of adult form in humans
  • produce large number of eggs per day: >200,000

8

describe the breakdown of nematodes (round worms) into intestinal vs tissue nematodes

9

name the 3 types of metazoa and the infective forms

10

name clinical symptoms associated with helminthic infections

  • usually a consequence of the worm's:
    • size
    • movement
    • longevity
  • combined with long-term damage and ongoing immune stimulation
  • presence of worms might result in:
    • mechanical blockage 
    • pressure from the growing parasite
    • nutritional deficiency

11

explain the significance of polyparasitism

 

  • high #s of infections: increases  chance of >1 parasite
  • e.g. common roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides)
    • infects >25% of the human population: co-occurs with 47 other species of helminths or protozoa
  • helminth co-infections can enhance morbidity for other infectious diseases, e.g. tuberculosis and HIV

12

describe nematodes

  • the nematodes have cylindrical bodies and complete digestive tracts
  • the body is covered with a cuticle, the oral opening may have hooks or suckers to attach to mucosal epithelium
  • there are separate male and female sexes which mate and produce eggs within the human host
  • the worms, larvae, or eggs may be diagnostic

13

name the intestinal nematodes

helminths (metazoa)

  • Ascaris (round worm)
  • Strongyloides 
  • Enterobius (pin worm)
  • Ancylostoma and Necator (hook worm) 
  • Trichuris (whip worm)

intestinal problems = take A SEAT on the toilet

14

name the tissue nematodes

  • Toxocara
  • Trichinella

Tissue = TT

15

name the filarial nematodes

  • Brugia malayi
  • Onchocerca volvulus
  • Wuchereria bancrofti

Fil(arial)-BOW wow

16

describe symptoms associated wth nematode infections (e.g. Ascariasis)

  • mostly asymptomatic
  • symptomatic infections vary with location & stage/form:
  • lungs (larvae):
    • asthma or pneumonia-like
    • cough, shortness of breath, wheezing
  • intestines (adult worms):
    • diarrhea; or bloody stools
    • general GI symptoms: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain
    • severe infxns: malnutrition, weight loss

17

describe Ascaris (roundworm)

18

Ascaris (roundworm)

19

describe Enterobius (pinworm)

20

21

describe Trichuris (whipworm)

22

23

describe Ancylostom and Necator (hookworm)

24

25

describe Strongyloides

26

27

describe Toxocara

28

29

describe Trichinella

30