Therapeutic Antimicrobials Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Therapeutic Antimicrobials Deck (8)
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1

describe the differences between -cidal and -static drugs

2

describe clinical situations when a broad-spectrum compound would be used

  • wide differential diagnosis based on symptoms
  • delay to wait for formal identification would be dangerous for patient
    • e.g. bacterial meningitis
  • treatment of drug resistant pathogens where resistance is to narrow spectrum compounds
  • polymicrobial infxns 

3

describe why it's sometimes better to give multiple drugs

  • to achieve a synergistic interaction
    • e.g. endocarditis caused by Enterococcus species:
    • exact combination can result in different effects
      • penicillin + gentamicin = bactericidal (kills)
      • penicillin alone = bacteriostatic (inhibits)
      • gentamicin alone = no sig. activity
  • prevent or minimize development of resistance
    • e.g. tuberculosis, malaria
    • HIV: HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy)
  • extend antimicrobial spectrum

4

describe the terms antagnostic, additive, synergistic and suppressive

5

describe the inhibitors of metabolism 

sulfonamides

  • block folic acid synthesis (most bacteria)
  • sulfonamides = structural analong of PABA = component of folic acid
    • basis for selective toxicity = no equivalent mammalian pathway
      • folic acid must be synthesized by bacteria

6

describe the mechanism of action of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP)

7

describe inhibitors of protein synthesis

  • higher binding affinity for prokaryotic ribosomes at level of:
    1. formation of 30s initiation complex
    2. formation of 70s ribosome
    3. elongation/assembly of amino acids

 

don't need to know specific examples of the groups on chart

8

summarize when antimicrobial drugs would be used