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KCU Comprehensive Exam > Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunology Deck (105)
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1

Why do warm blooded, long lived animals require complex immune defenses?

infectious agents such as bacteria can divide rapidly in warm blooded creatures

2

How many bacteria are there in the world?

4-6x10^30

3

What is the difference between gram positive and gram negative bacteria

gram positive has a thick layer of peptidoglycan, while gram negative does not

4

Describe the innate immune response

rapid response (min to hrs)
limited variability of effector mechanisms
nonspecific
no memory (no maturation of repeated response)

5

describe the adaptive immune response

slow response (days to weeks)
B cells and T cells are highly selective
specific
memory, maturation of secondary response

6

neutrophil morphology and effector function

polymorphonuclear, phagocytosis and digestion of microbes

7

eosinophils morphology and effector function

polymorphonuclear, allergic reactions and defense against helminths

8

basophils morphology and effector function

polymorphonuclear, allergic reactions

9

mast cells morphology and effector function

polymorphonuclear, allergic reactions

10

monocytes morphology and effector function

mononuclear, circulating macrophage precursors

11

macrophages morphology and effector function

mononuclear, phagocytosis and digestion of microbes, antigen presentation

12

How does immune responses of the innate immune system provide natural immunity against microorganisms?

phagocytosis and intracellular killing
recruitment of other inflammatory cells
presentation of antigens

13

_________ include neutrophils, monocytes and tissue macrophages, eosinophils and natural killer (NK) cells which are _______

leukocytes, lymphocytes

14

What is the pattern recognition receptor of gram positive bacteria?

TLR2

15

What is the pattern recognition receptor of gram negative bacteria?

TLR4

16

TLR1:TLR2 heterodimer ligand

lipopeptides, GPI

17

TLR1:TLR2 heterodimer microorganism recognized

bacteria, parasites

18

TLR1:TLR2 heterodimer cells carrying receptor

monocytes, dendritic cells, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells

19

TLR1:TLR2 heterodimer cellular location of receptor

plamsa membrane

20

TLR2:TLR6 heterodimer ligands

lipoteichoic acid, zymosan

21

TLR2:TLR6 heterodimer microorganisms recognized

gram positive bacteria, yeasts (fungi)

22

TLR2:TLR6 heterodimer cell carrying receptor

monocytes, dendritic cells, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells

23

TLR2:TLR6 heterodimer cellular location of receptors

plasma membrane

24

TLR3 ligand

double stranded viral RNA

25

TLR3 microorganisms recognized

viruses

26

TLR3 cells carrying receptors

NK cells

27

TLR3 cellular location of receptor

endoscopes

28

TLR4: TLR4 heterodimer ligand

lipopolysaccharide

29

TLR4: TLR4 heterodimer microorganism recognized

gram negative bacteria

30

TLR4: TLR4 heterodimer cells carrying receptors

macrophages, dendritic cells, mast cells, eosinophils