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KCU Comprehensive Exam > Ford Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ford Review Deck (116)
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1

What are the four types of noncovalent interactions?

charge-charge
dipole interactions
van der waals
hydrogen

2

Example of charge-charge interaction

salt bridges

3

Example of dipole interaction

selectivity filter of K+ channgel

4

Example of van Der Waals interactions

nucleotide stacking

5

Example of hydrogen interactions

nuclei acid and base pairing/protein secondary structure

6

If pH< pKa what does that mean?

protonated

7

If pH> pKa what does that mean

deprotonated

8

If pH=pKa what does that mean?

just as likely to be protonated as deprotonated

9

what is the equation for pKa?

pKa= -logKa = [H+] [A-] / [HA]

10

What does Ka mean?

dissociation constant, predicts how likely an acid will donate a proton

11

What is the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation?

pH= pKa + log [A-] / [HA]

12

What happens when something is reduced?

gains electrons (H)

13

What happens when something is oxidized?

loses electrons

14

What amino acid preforms redox?

cystein (disulfide linkages are reductions)

15

What are the 3 important electron carriers in cellular metabolism and their reduced and oxidized forms?

NAD+/NADH
FAD/FADH2
FMN/FMNH2

16

What is equilibrium?

forward rate = reverse rate, no net formation or destruction

17

How does Le Chatlier fit into cellular metabolism?

it's how to drive an unfavorable reaction forward
-make pathway/use up products
-couple it to a favorable reaction like ATP hydrolysis

18

What is the gibs free energy equation?

deltaG= deltaH- TdeltaS

19

how does thermodynamics relate to protein folding?

change of entropy--protein folds, loses entropy
aqueous environment has more disorder

20

negative delta H

energy released

21

postive delta H

energy added

22

zero delta H

closed system

23

negative delta S

decrease disorder

24

positive delta S

increase disorder

25

zero delta S

no net change in disorder

26

negative delta G

free energy released
exergonic, favorable
spontaneous reaction

27

positive delta G

free energy required
endergonic, unfavorable
driven reaction

28

zero delta G

equilibrium

29

Give example of cooperative binding

hemoglobin binds oxygen cooperatively

30

Positive cooperativity definition

binding site affinity for ligand increases with every subsequent binding