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Flashcards in Impaired Cognition Deck (43):
1

Define retrograde amnesia

Loss of memory from before damaging incident

Assoc diecephallic regions

2

Define anterograde amnesia

Inability to create new memories

Associate with hippocampal damage

3

What causes amnesia

Stroke, ABI, TBI, alcohol

4

What is korsakoff syndrome

Amnesia due to long term excessive alcohol consumption - thiamine deficiency due to malnutrition and alcohol cause impairment in regions that require thiamine ie lesions in limbic system/thalamus/diecephallic structures
leads to confabulation, disordered eye and limb movement, retrograde/anterograde amnesia and enlarged ventricles

5

What is the limbic system

Interconnecting structures in the brain
ie thalamus, cc, fornix, hyp, hipp, amygdala, olfactory bulb

6

Biomaterial of korsakoff S

Vitamin b1 deficiency

Thalamus impairment - acts as relay centre for forming and maintaining episodic memory

Enlarged ventricles that fill with CSF

7

Define hemispatial neglect

Attentional deficit where failt to respond or orient to stimuli in contralesional side of space
More common in left hemispace as right hemisphere modulate attention
thought to be due to impairment in gradient of attention between two hemispheres - right more dominant across visual field and left specific to right spatial attention

8

Define contralesional

Opposite side of lesion

9

Define ipsilesional

Same side of brain lesion

10

Define hemianopia

Visual deficit that means cannot see/process info on one side of space

11

Braine regions assoc with hemispatial neglect

Tempo paretial junction

Intraparetial sulcus

Supramarginal gyrus

12

Symptoms of neglect

Deficit in body representation

Don't incorporate what don't perceive & ignore

Anosognosia - unaware of disorder

Representational neglect - have info but ignore it (piazzo del duomo)

Extinction - when there is two competing stimuli, one extinguished

allesthia - see stimulus on left but report seeing on right

13

Tests for hemispatial neglect

visual search task
line bisection
drawing tasks (visual or representational)

14

Treatment of hemispatial neglect

Cognitive training
Scan training
Neck muscle vibrations
Mental imagery training
Video feedback training

15

Problems with hemispatial treatments

Improvement is transient and short lived

16

Describe prism adaptation treatment

Wear prism goggles that shift visual field 10 degrees

Ask to reach for targets whilst wearing - realligns the visual and proprioceptive frame 'peas magic shift'

causes after effect - neglect slower to realign to vision so show reduction in neglect symptoms for longer - limited feedback/attention

17

Prism adaptation improvements rosette 1998

subjective shift to midline
Improvement on : line bisection, line cancellation, copying drawings, memory drawing and reading as well as wheel chair navigation
last for at least 2 hours

18

Prism adaptation lasting effects pisella et al

Found to last up to 5 weeks

But limit of 10 weeks

19

What other problems can arise from pre frontal lobe damage

impaired executive function
Inertia
Perseveration
Disinhibition
Deficient self awareness
Inflexibility

20

Define intertia

Problems starting
Apathetic and unresponsive - superior medial damage

Ie only eat when food in front of them

21

Define perseveration

Prolongation or continuation of act/action sequence - can't break sequence

Dorsolateral lesions

22

Define disinhibition

Impulsivity - don't inhibit behaviours

Aggressive outbursts, promiscuity, poor decisions

Orbital frontal cortex

23

Define deficient self awareness

Inability to perceive performance errors and failure to appreciate impact on others

Don't respond normally to emotional or social reinforcers

Orbital cortex and related limbic systems

24

Define inflexibility

Concrete attitude
Can't plan or sustain goal directed behaviours

25

Define amnesia

Impairment to encoding or storage processes in memory due to disease or accident

Retrograde or anterograde

26

patient HM

anterograde amnesia following procedure to remove bilateral medial temporal lobe in epilepsy procedure
also remove hippocampus and amygdala

27

minler 1962 Patient HM

gave repeated procedural tasks
ie draw line between two outlines or draw a 5 point star in mirror
not recall doing procedures but show sig improvement in speed and accuracy
- dissoc between motor and knowledge base learning

28

kopelman 2014 temp lobe amnesia vs korsakoff

Both syndromes show ‘core’ features of an anterograde amnesic syndrome; but retrograde amnesia more extensive (going back many years or decades) in the Korsakoff syndrome.
spontaneous confabulation occurs more commonly in the Korsakoff syndrome
amnesia forget more rapidly but korsakoff more influenced by proactive interference
These differences are attributed to the greater prevalence of frontal atrophy and frontal damage in Korsakoff cases.

29

proactive interference

previously learned material hinders subsequent learning.

30

retroactive interference

new material interferes with old memory/learning

31

Thelma (parkin 1996)

neglect patient fail to notice stimuli to the left side of space unless important

32

behtman et al 1997 hemispatial neglext

each hemisphere accounts for contralateral attention of space
hemispatial show similar eye saccased across left and right hemispace as controls - take into account both sides just don't attend to one

33

baylis driver and rafal 1993 hemispatial neglect and extinction

extinction paradigm - two pens or 1 pen and 1 comb
extinction of 2nd pen in first condition but recognise comb in second - ignore unnecessary/irrelevant info

34

Bisiach and Luzzatti 1978 hemispatial and representational neglect

two neglect patients describe imagined perspective of piazza del duomo
omit descriptions on left but report when from a diff perspective - have the info but ignore

35

visual search task for neglect

cancel or identify target numbers or letters in a display of similar stimuli or distractors
neglect fail to identify targets to the left

36

line bisection task for neglect

bisect centre of the line
fail to account for left to bisect to the right of the centre

37

drawing tasks for neglect

visual - copy
representational - from memory
omit details to the left/squeeze to the right

38

marshall and halligan 1988 neglect

burning house
which would you prefer to live
neglect say one with non burning window

39

laduras paladine and cubelin 1998 priming and neglect

present patients with word/non word on neglect side then letter dring
letter string is word/non word linked or not to word seen on neglect side
faster to respond to word linking to that prev see but fail to explicitly report seeing the word

40

luaute et al 2006 neural basis of prism adaptation

improvement correlated with neural activity in right cerebellum (assoc with control of visuospatial output), left thalamus, left temporal occ cortex, right posterior parietal crtex and left medial temp lobe
increased efficiency in visual stimuli recognition and greater implications of ventral "what" region

41

what is executive function

set of cognitive processes – including attentional control, inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, as well as reasoning, problem solving, and planning – that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors

assoc with frontal lobes

42

Phineas gage

explosion during ork
tamping iron in skull
heat courterise wound
"not gage anymore" - change in personality, become unreliable, unpredictable disrespectful and lacked social skills

43

damasio graborski and trank et al 1994 Phineas gage

estimate trajectory of rod using neuroimaging on skull
impaired orbitofrontal cortex and anterior medial areas
all assoc with exec functioning