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Flashcards in SPRING Intelligence and Working Memory Deck (16):
1

define intelligence

difficult to define
sensitive issue as holds potential for misuse
focuses on differences between people but does not identify what two people may share that makes them both intelligent
lots of measurements and test and not identify the most salient
correlational in nature - dont know that causes what

2

what are the real world tasks of intelligence

reading comprehension
listening comprehension
problem solving
vocab learning
following directions
logic learning
taking notes
- use to predict wm span but not exact

3

describe hamrick and engles prediction of working memory span

that low expertise and low wm = worse off
but low expertise and high wm = better
converge with high expertise no matter you wm capacity

4

hamrick and engle basketball knowledge findings

low wm never reaches that of high wm
no matter your expertise - can improve but never be as good

5

describe vogel, mccolough, and machzawa 2005

take brain measures when ask to compare shape orientation and distractors
brain regions active in high wm when comparing orientation of o coloured bars in presence of distractors similar to low wm activity when no distractors present - high wm better at ignoring distractors/faster to remove#/

6

what is the IQ (intelligence quotient)

based on normative bell curve of the population
average around 70-120
2.28& at each extreme

7

describe binet intelligence test

used to identify mentally retarded children for special ef

8

describ ehte weschler adult intelligence test (WAIS)

use variety of scales ie verbal (vocab, arithematic, digit span) and performance (picture completion, digit symbol)

9

who are the three main early intelligence theorists

spearman (1923) - spearmans g
thurstone (1938) - look at primary mental abilities ie inductive reasoing, spatial and numerical abilities
cattell (1971) fluid and crytallised intelligence

10

define fluid intelligence (gF)

non verbal intelligence
does not require previous knowledge

11

define crystallised intelligence (gC)

mediated by knoweldge and often assoc with speed of processing

12

for IQ - anderson 2007

IQ more than social advantage as difficulty of individual items does not systematically vary across social groups
Performance on a wide variety of cognitive tests is correlated – so it is likely that “general intelligence” is a general property of the brain
has substantial heritability (ie IQ and twin studies) [BUT HERITABILITY DOES NOT MEAN GENETICALLY DETERMINED]

13

describe anderson 2005 simulation experiemnt

10% population are hit over the head with a hammer
hard enough to permenatly lower IQ by 15 points (1SD)
heritability of IQ also decreases - therefore likely to be influenced by environmental factors

14

what is the turings test

can an observer tell if they are interacting with a person or not
'the imitation game'
propose to be passed by 2000 but so far only 25% of the time will fool

15

describe the frame problem (mccarthy and hayes 1969)

the challenge of representing the effects of action in logic without having to represent explicitly a large no of intuitively low non effects
Is it possible, in principle, to limit the scope of the reasoning required to derive the consequences of an action? And, more generally, how do we account for our apparent ability to make decisions on the basis only of what is relevant to an ongoing situation without having explicitly to consider all that is not relevant?

16

describe the robots dilemma (dennett 1984)

based on inability to follow through unintended consequences
ie wants to to battery out of room to charge self up
if dont think about consequences and blown up
but if were to think about all possible unintended consequences then logically too many (frame prob) and take too long and blown up
must be able to tell apart the revelant from irrelevant in the context of the situation - how do you seperate trivial and common sense reasoning of humans for technology?