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Flashcards in Long Term Memory Deck (33):

Define Long term memory

Recall everything after 30s to years

seemingly unlimited capacity and duration


Types of long term memory



Semantic memory is

Facts and meaning

Knowledge about the works je capital of countries


Episodic memory is

Memory for personally experienced events - when, where, what, who
Recently evolved and late developing and most vunerable in brain injury etc
likely to be unique to humans


Procedural memory is

Memory for skills
Memory for how to do something je by practicing a skill
Difficult to explain how it is done - cant be consciously recalled


What is declarative memory

Semantic and episodic
Can declare / talk about the memory


Differences between semantic and episodic

Episodic more vunerable to forgetting, has affective links, heavily PFC, autonoetic awareness

Semantic more Noetic awareness (know info without recollection)


Cohen and squire distinction between declarative and procedural/non declarative

Episodic and semantic requires conscious awareness of reva

Procedural memory does not - implicitly retrieve the info


Explicit memory tests

Recall or recognition of words presented in a study


Implicit memory tests

Ask to do tasks that require "first thing that comes to time" or completing word stems
priming - performance thought to reflect unconscious processing of previously seen words


Define encoding

Acquiring info from the environment
thought to be influenced by the extent that we elab on info
can be purposeful (attend to stimuli) or incidental (context dependent)


Define retrieval

Ability to recall, recognise or show evidence of prior learning
can be deliberative (ie test situation) or accidental (no conscious effort)


Encoding and retrieval interaction

The way we encode the information often reflects our ability to retrieve
Is via studying


Methods of memory processes

Neuroscience - brain beh mapping
Computational - models
Neuropsychology - brain damage/disease


Amnesia and distinguishing STM and LTM

Normal short term but poor long term
Therefore must be seperate systems


Amnesia and distinguishing declarative and procedural (Warrington and weiskrantz 1970

Intact implicit but impaired explicit

Learn set of words -
Implicit test ie name a word that begins with..
Explicit test - recall all words seen earlier

Control sig better at explicit

Control and amnesia same on implicit memory test BUT amnesia not recall learning


Amnesia and semantic vs episodic

Impaired episodic but intact semantic

Poor recall of new names etc but good recall of vocab


Define short term

What occur in last few seconds

Limited capacity and attention


Declarative memory brain regions

Medial temporal lobes



Procedural brain regions

Reflex pathways


what is priming

part of non declarative memory
prior exposre to specific related stimulus determines subsequent processing of latter stimuli
ie affects processing speed - faster


speirs et al 2001 episodic vs semantic in amnesia

amnesia patients have impairments in hipp and fornix
all show signs of episodic impairment but not all of semantic


varga-khaden et al 1997 episodic vs semantic brain areas

episodic greater assoc with hippocampus and PFC
semantic more assoc with underlying entorhinal, perihinal and parahippocampal cortices


episodic and semantic and autonoetic awareness

episodic associated with AM - ability to mentally time travel self in past present and future
recall as though reliving event
semantic more noetic awareness - info without necessarily linking to self


kan et al 2009 link between episodic and semantic

argued to be governed by distinct memory systems
but - episodic recall of grocery items either congruent or incongruent with semantic prices
increase in recall when congruent
- systems are interdependent, where semantic information can facilitate learning and recall of episodic events


how might explicit memory be influenced by implicit memory

conscious recall of info facilitated by past attitudes/emotions, behaviours that are below conscious awareness and memory ie past experiences


marsh et al 1997 unconscious plagiarism

students asked to generate own ideas
BUT plagiarise based on information previously exposed to
not realise until prompted to engage in source monitoring


butler and berry 2001 problems with implicit memory tassk

participants may intentionally be retrieving study words (even if unaware of intent)
pareticipants may be consciously aware that the test words reflect prev seen study words - need a way to factor for test awareness


mace 2003 implicit test awareness

those who become aware of test aims perform sig better in spite of lack of recall instructions


levels of processing theory
craik and lockheart 1972

the depth at which we process info determined our subsequent recall of that info
Ie shallow (structural or phoetic) or deep (semantic)


craik and Tulving 1975 LOP

recall of 60 words dependent on way processed:
Structural / visual processing: ‘Is the word in capital letters or small letters?
Phonemic / auditory processing: ‘Does the word rhyme with . . .?’
Semantic processing: ‘Does the word go in this sentence . . . . ?
recog test of words prev seen
recall greater for semantic>phonetic>visual


transfer appropritate processing
morris et al 1977

the capability of recall is dependent not on the way the information is initially processed but in the similarity between encoding and retrieval
if participants were given a rhyming recognition test they remembered the words which had received shallow processing better than the more deeply processed ones.


godden and Baddeley 1975
transfer appropriate processing and context dependency

Land-L, L-W, W-W, W-L learning 38 unrelated words
50% better recall when learning and recall are the same, 40% more words were forgotten when the condition changed. Recall for learning on land and recall on land was 13.5 compared to 8.6 when they learned the words on land and had to recall under water.