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Flashcards in Procedural Memory Deck (40):
1

Define procedural

Heterogenous group of learning abilities unified by the fact they are not declarative - non conscious recall expressed via performance

2

Procedures/Skills and habits - brain regions

Striatum

3

Implicit memory/priming - brain regions

Neocortex

4

Simple classical conditioning - brain regions

Cerebellum
Amygdala

5

Non associative learning - brain regions

Reflex pathways

6

Wevidence for distinction between declarative and procedural

Experimental studies
Neuro imaging
Neuropsychology
Amnesia patients

7

Define procedures/ skills and habits

Acts performed regularly - routine

Depend on habits to respond to new novel stimuli in the environment

Include:
Perceptual and 'motor skills
Cognitive skills

8

How are skills and habits investigated in the lab

Perform challenging task over repeated trials and over sessions

Learning via improvement in speed/accuracy

Compare healthy to amnesia - amnesia show preserved skill learning? - dissociation between procedural and declarative

9

Describe the mirror tracing task

Investigates perceptual and motor skills

Trace figure in paper by seeing mirror image of drawing

Healthy adults but but improve with training - amnesia also ie patient HM retain

10

Describe the persuit rotor task

Perceptual and motor skills

Pps maintain contact between stylus and disc on turntable

Time increase with practice in healthy, amnesia and alz

IMPAIRMENT IN HUNTINGTONS - basal ganglia damage includes striatum

11

Describe tower tasks

Cognitive skills

Tower of Hanoi - must plan ahead to complete quickly

Amnesia show mixed evidence and Huntington's impaired

12

Define implicit learning

Learning about a stimulus in the environment without necessarily intending to do so

Resulting knowledge difficult to express

13

Describe sequence learning 'serial reaction time task'

Light appears in 1/4 locations horizontally on screen

Press correct key below the light as fast as possible

14

Describe nissen and bullemer sequence learning

1. Random sequence

2. Repeating sequence - sequence follows a pattern

800 trials

Repeating sequence 50% reductions in RT but random little improvement

Many reported being aware of the pattern

BUT amnesia - improved without awareness

15

Willingham et al implicit sequence learning

Healthy pps show substantial improvement without explicit knowledge of sequence

16

Describe destrebecqz and cleermens sequence learning

Pps see repeating sequence and asked to generate new sequence without old

Inadvertently generate old sequence - unaware that producing it

17

Describe Honda et al imaging data for sequence learning

Examined brain regions involved in implicit and explicit motor sequence learning using a PET & serial reaction time task

Press button in response to visual stimuli - 10 cycles of same 10 digit sequence

Recall of sequence + improvement after - explicit
RT improvement before sequence recall - implicit

18

Results of IMPLICIT Hondas et al imaging data for sequence learning

Implicit assoc with:
Left sensorimotor cortex
Left supplementary motor areas
Putamen (part of striatum)
Left paretial

19

Results of EXPLICIT Honda et al imaging data for sequence learning

Right PFC
right pre motor cortex
Paretial occipital cortex

(Implicit and explicit mediated by different structures)

20

Masters - implicit learning everyday

Golf players learning to putt:

1. Explicit learn by specific instructions over 4 sessions (100 putts)

2. Implicit learning by practice sessions without instructions and secondary task (random no generation - remove conscious awareness by diverting attention )

21

Results of masters implicit learning everyday

Both groups similar level putting performance after 4 sessions

Implicit little explicit knowledge of skills - few verbal protocols and rules than explicit

22

Masters 'test phase' implicit learning in everyday

Told gold expert eval their performance via one way mirror and financial reward depending on performance - increase stress

Explicit learning perform worse - 'choking' - focus too much on explicit knowledge and what they're doing that disrupts automaticity of the skill

23

Describe Weldon and roediger repitition priming

Processing of stimuli facilitated by previous recent exposure to the stimulus

1. Pps study list of words and pics

2. Explicit - free conscious recall
Implicit - fragment complete room rest and told to guess words - some corresponded to studied words, some to the names of studied pics and some new

24

Results of weldon and roediger repitition priming

Free recall - Pictures recalled better than words 'picture superiority effect'

Implicit frag completion - better on words than pictures

25

Tulving schacter and stark
Retention interval

Pps given 96 words

Tested 1 hour and 1 week later

Test:
Recognition test (explicit)
Word frag completion test - how often complete with words prev seen (implicit)

26

Results Tulving schacter and stark

Recog memory worse in word frag

No decline in performance for implicit between 1 and 7 days

27

Mitchell 2006 retention interval experiments

'82
Shown pics of objects for 1-3 secs then recog test for objects (explicit)

'99
Mail fragments of Pics to same participants and ask to name

- 24.7% recall correct after 17 years, control 5.2% - implicit rigid and occur even whe no conscious recollection of taking part in exp

28

Levels of processing and explicit/implicit

Explicit test influenced by level of processing at study and implicit not

29

Describe Jacoby and Dallas 1981 levels of processing explicit/implicit

Presented pps with list of familiar words
Study semantic or not

Explicit recognition test
Implicit perceptual identification test - word briefly flash on screen and have to identify the word

30

Results of jacoby and Dallas levels of processing explicit/implicit

Recognition memory better for semantic than non

No diff in perceptual identification -
More likely identify words seen on list before but same for both level conditions

31

Dividing attention for implicit memory tests

Implicit test performance less affected by divided attention than explicit

32

Milligan and Hartman dividing attention on implicit

Pps presented with list of words told to read aloud and remember for later

Half pps perform digit monitoring task at same time (tap table when hear 3 consecutive odd digits)

Implicit word frag test
Explicit word frag cued recall(same frag but told to recall study words to complete them)

33

Results mulligan and Hartman dividing attention on implicit memory

Priming on word frag completion not disrupted by dividing attention

Word frag recall was

34

Neuro imaging evidence
Schacter et al

Pps study familiar words

Pet scan while:

Implicit stem completion test (complete word with first word that comes to mind - both prev seen or not)

Baseline stems (only use new words not prev seen)

Explicit stem completion (complete using only prev seen)

35

Results schacter et al neuro imaging evidence

Explicit stem:
Acid age right parahippocampal formation compared to baseline

Implicit stem:
Decreased activation in extrastriatal occipital cortex compared to baseline

36

Multiple memory systems theory of implicit and explicit memory

System responsible for conscious recollection

Functionally and anatomically distinct from other learning systems

Ie selective impairment in explicit memory for amnesiacs but not implicit

37

Multiple memory processes theory of implicit and explicit memory

Memory tests use diff processes
Dissociation a between tests reflect different processes (conceptual vs perceptual)

38

Classical conditioning eye blink tests

Tone presented shortly before luff of air to eye lead to eye blink

Tone lead to eye blink

- intact with amnesia patients with bilateral medial-temp lesions

- absent in patients with cerebellum lesions (motor)

- impaired in korsakoff (cerebellum damage)

CEREBELLUM STORAGE OF MEMORY TRACE FOR PROCEDURAL MEMORY

39

Classical conditioning fear conditioning in rats

Pair sound web shock leads to fear to sound - Amygdala role in fear conditioning

Humans pair stimulus to aversive noise that leads to GSR/SCR
- amygdala resection patients show little/no fear

40

Havituation

Rapid stimulus presentation = rapid habituation

Weak stimulus = rapid habituation

Withheld stimulus = spontaneous recovery