Flashcards in Industrial Workers Deck (48):
What did Alexander II introduce?
New Work Disciplines, which were foreign to the rural world
What were there periods of hardship and unemployment under the Tsars?
Due to trade depressions
What was a consequence of workers gaining communication with the West?
New political ideas were spread such as Marxism
What was a common feature of the Tsarist era?
Strikes were a common feature, although they were banned in 1885 after the Morozov Dye Works strike involving 8,000 workers
What did the workers have in terms of political rights under the Tsars?
They had no political rights, as they could not vote in the Duma elections due to restrictions on the franchise
How many people were employed in full time work at its height in the Tsarist era?
4 million people
How much did workers earn per month in the Tsarist era?
The equivalent of £2
What was the average working day under the Tsars?
It was around 11 hours, although Alexander III had restricted it to no more that 11.5 hours in 1888
How many land passports were issued during the Great Spurt?
7 million land passports were issued to allow peasants to migrate
What percentages of Moscow and St Petersburg's populations were immigrants in the late Tsarist era?
15% of Moscow's population, 33% of St Petersburg's population
What was the variation in wage rates during and after the Great Spurt between Moscow and Baku?
Moscow was 175 roubles per year, Baku was 360 roubles per year
When was medical insurance brought in?
1910 under Nicholas II
How many people typically shared a bed in the late Tsarist era as a result of overcrowding?
Four to six people
When did a large cholera outbreak occur in St Petersburg under the Tsars and what did it lead to?
It occurred in 1911 and led to a sewage system being introduced
When did the Lena Goldfields strike occur and how many people died as a result of it?
1912 and 200 people died
What proportion of houses were built from wood during Tsarist industrialisation?
What were houses and streets mainly lit with in the Tsarist era?
By 1910 how many towns had access to electricity, gas, had piped water, or a sewage system?
74 towns had access to electricity, 35 to gas, 200 had piped water and 38 had a sewage system
What did Alexander III do to attempt to improve working conditions?
He set up a factory inspectorate but it was very limited in its scope and powers, and he also banned children under 12 from working
Where did workers in small workshops often sleep during the Tsarist era?
On the floor of their workshops
What percentage of families were living in one room shared by other families during the Civil War?
What percentage of families lived in a bathroom, kitchen, corridor or hallway during War Communism?
What did the Bolsheviks set up as a factory inspectorate?
Rabkrin, but it was just a talking shop
What restricted movement during War Communism and the Five-Year Plans?
Passports were reintroduced
What were the negative impacts of the NEP?
There were only slow wage rises, resentment of Nepmen and corruption
What is an example of slave labour under the Communists?
Belomor Canal during the Five Year Plans
What were some rewards for success and meeting targets introduced under the Communists?
The Stakhanovite movement, wage differentials and piece work
How was the construction of the metro beneficial under the Communists?
It provided much needed support to workers' daily lives although it was often overcrowded
What were some leisure activities available under the Communists?
There were opportunities to go to the cinema or the theatre even though the performances were filled with propaganda
What improvements were there to the working class under the Communists?
The working class became more skilled and better educated, and there were much higher literacy rates after the late 1920s, and workers had more security of employment although initially there was a high labour turnover
How was the position of women improved under the Communists?
Creches and canteens were provided, although they were not treated equally to men in the workplace and had less chance of promotion
What percentage of the workforce was made up of women during the Five Year Plans?
What became of Trade Unions under the Communists?
They became organs of he state, working with old bourgeoisie specialists during the NEP before merging into the state during the Five Year Plans
What did living space fall to under the Five Year Plans?
Living space fell from 8.5m² to 5.8m²
What benefits came to housing after World War II?
Housing projects were not considered a priority during the Five Year Plans, and under Khrushchev, after the massive devastation of World War II, a housing project nearly doubled the available housing and communal living was abandoned
What had happened to working hours by 1964?
Work hours had fallen but were subject to periods of longer hours to meet specific needs and targets
What happened to consumer goods under Khrushchev?
There was no real improvement in consumer goods as he was focused on technological competition for the Cold War
What demonstrated the level of continuity under Khrushchev's reign to the past?
Novocherkassk in June 1962 demonstrated the level of continuity. Demonstrations about wage cuts and bad housing conditions were met with machine guns and arrest without trial
What was introduced under Stalin in order to promote childbearing?
'Distinctions of Mother Heroines' scheme was introduced in 1944 whereby women who at any one time had ten or more children were given substantial money rewards
What happened to abortion under the Communists?
It was legalised in 1926, resulting in a fall of the birth rate, prompting a revision of the law whereby it was only allowed if the life of the mother was thought to be threatened. As such the birth rate rose again only to fall after all restrictions on abortion were lifted in 1955
What percentage of the army was considered literate by the mid-1860s?
7% of army recruits were considered literate
How many pupils were attending primary schools in 1929 and how had this changed by 1930?
8 million pupils were attending primary schools in 1929 and 18 million pupils were attending primary schools in 1930
How did the number of primary schools in Russia vary between 1880 and 1914?
23,000 in 1880, 81,000 in 1914
How many pupils were attending secondary schools by 1931 and how had this changed by 1932?
2.5 million pupils attending secondary schools in 1931 and 6.9 pupils attending secondary schools in 1932
How many people were left homeless after the Second World War?
25 million Russians
Give an example of an anti-religious pressure group formed under Lenin?
The League of the Militant Godless, formed in 1925
What happened to the churches under Stalin?
By 1938 there were only 16 working Orthodox Churches, compared with 224 in 1930, and the number of clergy had been reduced by 60%