Flashcards in Minorities Deck (35):
What happened in Warsaw in 1861?
As a result of Alexander II's succession nationalist values began to grown and demonstrations began in Warsaw, leading to up to 200 being killed as demonstrations were put down
What happened in 1863 to Finland?
Alexander II reestablished the Diet and initiated several reforms increasing Finland's autonomy from Russia including the establishment of its own currency, the markka
What happened in 1863 as a result of a law conscripting Poles into the Russian army?
A full insurrection broke out in January 1863. The rebellion was largely rural and it took nearly a year to control and was not properly over until August 1864
What happened to the Jews under Alexander II?
Harsh treatment was lessened and Jews were allowed to migrate beyond the 'Pale of Settlement', and those having a Russian secondary school education were granted greater rights, increasing Jewish enrolment in Russian schools, but Jews in the military were prevented from achieving the rank of officer
What happened to the Jewish population between 1850 and the end of the nineteenth century?
The Jewish population increased substantially, almost doubling to 5 million, with Jews becoming more prominent in society, with a Jewish proletariat developing along with a small Jewish upper class
Where did Alexander II 'russify'?
Originally it was just Poland, Ukraine, the Tartars and Georgians, and the policy was extended to Finland, Armenia and the Baltic territories
What happened to the Jews under Alexander III?
The Russian government permitted and encouraged pogroms, and an estimated 215 disturbances occurred between the first outbreaks in May
What was the Jewish reaction to pogroms
A militant Zionist movement was founded in 1883 which fought for a Jewish state
How many Polish workers went on strike during the 1905 revolution?
What is an example of a group encouraged by the government to form displaying loyalty to the Tsar?
The Union of Russian People founded in 1904
What was a more militant group encouraged under the Tsars?
The Black Hundred Gangs. The men in these gangs went around the countryside urging the peasants to rise up against anyone who hated Russia
What were the bulk of executions under Stolypin's necktie for?
They were in Russia's outlying regions where there had been opposition to Russification
What happened to the Poles as part of Russification?
In 1907 all Polish schools had to teach in Russian and senior posts within the Polish civil service were given to Russians
What happened to Nikolai Borbrikov?
Nikolai Borbrikov was the Governor General of Finland, and he fully integrated Finland into the Russian Empire and Russified it. He was assassinated in 1904
What happened to Finland in 1905?
It was given full autonomy only to find the agreement was quickly reneged upon by Stolypin in the same year
What did the Jews do in World War I?
They felt that they could increase their substandard role in society if they participated. Over 400,000 Jews were mobilised and about 80,000 served in the front lines. When the Russian army was defeated, anti-semitic commanders blamed the Jews
When did the Provisional Government grant Poland independence?
30th March 1917
What happened to Ukraine under the Provisional Government?
The Ukrainians demanded self-government and moderate socialists in the Provisional Government made concessions to them
When did the Provisional Government abolish all restrictions on the Jews?
16th March 1917
What regions declared themselves independent with the Bolshevik take over?
Republics were proclaimed in Ukraine, Transcaucasia and Finland
Where pressed their own claims towards independence, confirmed by the Treaty of Versailles?
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland
What happened to Poland in 1920?
There was a border war with Poland in 1920, but the Red Army was pushed back and a treaty of Riga was signed in April 1921 giving large parts of Belorussia to Poland
What happened in Georgia between 1917 and 1921?
A Georgian government in 1917 was overthrown in 1921 by force with the help of Stalin
What was confirmed in the Constitution produced in 1924?
It confirmed the merger of the component national units of the old Empire into the USSR, and left each republic with the theoretical right to leave the Union
What percentage of Jews made up officers in the Red Army by 1926?
What did the Stalin Constitution in 1936 do?
It added Kirghizia and Tajikstan to the list of states given full republic status, and created a system that appeared to allow greater representation to the interests of separate nation states
What happened to the Jews after World War II?
Attempts to suppress Soviet Jewry were resumed, and until Stalin's death in 1953 Soviet Jews were placed in the gulag and were faced with significant physical oppression, such a the Doctors Plot
Why did Khrushchev face unrest in Poland, the GDR and Hungary?
As a result of his secret speech in 1953
Why did Central Asia avoid Russification?
The Tsars and Communists seemed to think that, given the complexities of societies there and the difficulties with communication and transport, Russification was not achievable or desirable
What was the Steppe Statute?
It was passed in 1891 and granted 40 acres of land to peasant settlers in Central Asia
What happened with the Russian Government attempting to draw on people in Central Asia for the war effort?
Between 1915 and 1917 the government attempted to use people from Central Asia for the war effort but they were deemed, in general, not fit for combat duties and were given other jobs, leading to the 'conscription revolt'
What happened under Khrushchev in 1957?
He issued a decree titled 'On the Rehabilitation of Deported Peoples', allowing many groups who had been deported between 1941 and 1945 to return to their homelands. However, some groups were excluded, such as the Volga Germans and Meskhetians
How was the Amur Basin secured?
It was secured in 1860 as a result of Nikolai Muraviev, governor general of eastern Siberia, who used his own personal army to force the Chinese to sign two treaties giving Russia territory around the Amur river and access to the Pacific coast
When did China become Communist and under who?
It became Communist in 1949 under Mao Zedong