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Flashcards in Opposition to Russian Government Deck (54):

What caused opposition to Russian rulers?

It was caused by poor treatment of the peasantry or working classes, independence movements from minorities, lack of political freedom and failure to meet expectation following reform. In some cases opposition was based on political differences


What were the high points of opposition?

The Assassination of Alexander II, the 1905 Revolution, the Revolutions of 1917, the Kornilov Affair, the Civil War and the Krondstadt Mutiny


What was the impact of the assassination of Alexander II?

The impact was limited; the People's Will were hunted down and the Loris-Melikov Proposal for a national zemstvo ended


What was the impact of the 1905 Revolution?

It led to sweeping political reform with the October Manifesto and Duma but was curtailed by the Fundamental Laws of 1906 and brutal revenge through Stolypin's necktie for those leading the movements


What sparked the February Revolution and why did it succeed?

It was begun by the Putilov Steel Works strike, but the main reason for its success was the abandonment of the Tsar by the army


What was the impact of the Kornilov Affair?

It saw the collapse of the Provisional Government legitimacy as they were threatened by their own forces who came back from the front line of the war


What was the impact of the October Revolution?

Although it wasn't particularly popular, as opposed to a well orchestrated coup, it saw the beginning of 70 years of Communist rule


What was the result of the Civil War?

The Civil War resulted in the total defeat of external 'white' forces to the Bolshevik party


Why was the Kronstadt Mutiny important?

It was important for redirecting Lenin's policy from War Communism to the NEP, however, 1,000 ex-Bolshevik soldiers were massacred


What was the Leningrad Affair?

The Leningrad Affair was Stalin's belief that members of the Leningrad party were trying to take credit for the success of World War II, and he purged around 200 party officials


What was the Doctors' Plot?

It was a theoretical plan to murder Stalin by Jewish doctors who had been blamed for the death of the leading Communist Zhadanov


How strong was political opposition to the Tsars in the form of populism?

It was weak. The Narodniks tried to take political ideas to the peasants who were unwilling to support them


What groups did the Narodniks break into?

They became Land and Liberty (peaceful) and the People's Will (terrorists)


What was the main threat to the Tsars in the early nineteenth century?

The main threat came in the form of Socialist Revolutionaries, who were a populist/communist hybrid. They carried out political assassinations in their terrorist wing and were popular in the Duma before the election system was adapted


Who were the Social Democrats split between?

The Mensheviks (moderate) and the Bolsheviks (radical). The Mensheviks were more popular however Bolshevism was advanced by World War I


What did Lenin do immediately in 1918?

He closed down the Constituent Assembly and banned all political parties immediately. He also unleashed the Red Terror on political opponents


Who were removed from the government after initially being allowed in?

Despite arguments from Zinoviev and Kamenev, SRs and Mensheviks were removed


Where did Lenin's main opposition come from?

It came from internal splits - most notably the one regarding whether to continue War Communism or the NEP - this led him to introduce the 'Ban on Factions' in the party


How did Stalin discredit his enemies?

He used the factionalist argument, expelling Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev from the politburo due to their demonstration in Red Square against him (known as the United Opposition) in 1927. Bukharin was also accused


What happened to Stalin's popularity in 1934?

Stalin's popularity was waning within the party due to his brutal policies. His leadership was challenged by Kirov, who was murdered in late 1934


What were the Great Purges and what did Stalin use to justify them?

The Great Purges were instigated following Kirov's murder, and included Show Trials of leading ex-Bolsheviks who were accused of complicity in his murder. Between 1935 and 1938, Zinoviev, Kamenev and Bukharin were all executed after confessing under torture


What was the new wave of terror between 1937 and 1938 and who led it?

The head of the NKVD Yekhov unleashed a new wave of terror called the Yezhovschina which saw quotas and lists drawn up to find oppositionists in all areas of society. He was eventually purged in 1938 when the USSR was struggling to administer itself because of the waves of arrests and executions


How many are estimated to have died during Stalin's purges?

20 million


Who did Khrushchev face internal opposition from?

He faced internal opposition from Beria, who he had executed, and the Anti-Party Group who he sidelined by gaining the support of new members in 1957


What did peasant opposition come in the form of?

It came in the form of rioting - there were thousands of riots after the Emancipation and in the early part of the twentieth century there were widespread Black Earth Riots


Where did peasant opposition succeed?

Peasants succeeded in getting redemption dues abolished and Stolypin's 'Wager on the Strong' but they were often brutally crushed


What led Lenin towards the NEP?

Despite initial support for the Bolsheviks from peasants with heroes like Chapayev fighting against the Whites, riots in the Volga and Tambov regions led Lenin towards the NEP


How was peasant opposition dealt with under Stalin?

Stalin used the Red Army on peasant resistance to collectivisation and they were hit by famines due to their tactics of destroying produce. Peasant opposition was effectively destroyed and Khrushchev tried to grant them some concessions


How did workers protest in the Tsarist era?

Workers mainly used striking as a protest, with 800 being killed at the Morozov Dye Works strike in 1888, 1,000 during Bloody Sunday and 200 in the Lena Goldfields Massacre of 1912


What happened to the workers during the revolution?

Workers are believed to have aided the revolution but some railwaymen demanded concessions from Lenin in 1918 that were short-lived. After fighting in the Civil War lots of workers were killed and replaced by apathetic peasants in the cities


What workers revolt did Khrushchev face?

He faced a workers revolt in Novocherkassk in 1962, and 60 people were killed


What happened to the Poles?

The Polish revolt was brutally put down after a years' fighting although they gained independence in the Treaty of Versailles and defeated Russia in the short border war in 1920. They were taken as part of the Satellite States again by 1945


What happened to the Finns?

The Finns tended to be loyal to the Tsars as Alexander II had given them a Diet, Nicholas II removed it, however, independence was gained after World War I


How were Jews treated?

Jews were treated fairly poorly under the Tsars and there were frequent pogroms, and Zionist movements did develop. They received better treatment initially in the Communist ear as many were Bolsheviks but Stalin launched some attacks on 'rootless cosmopolitanism' in the 1950s which were eased by Khrushchev


What happened to the Ukrainians in the Stalinist era?

Ukrainians suffered heavily due to their opposition to collectivisation with around 5 million dying in a famine between 1932 and 1934


When did opposition tend to be more successful?

Opposition tended to be more successful when the leader was failing in wars, when the leader did not use heavy repression or censorship or if they had a mastery of media and propaganda techniques and were well organised


Who were the chief proponents of the populist cause?

Nikolai Chernyshevsky and Pyotr Lavrov


How many political killings were the radical SRs responsible for between 1901 and 1905?

2,000, including Grand Duke Sergei and Vyacheslav Plehve


When was the People's Will formed and what was a success of the People's Will?

The People's Will was formed in 1879, and the assassination of Alexander II was a short term success, although it did not prompt a complete overthrow of Tsarism and ended the Loris-Melikov proposal for a national Zemstvo


When was the Socialist Revolutionary Party formed and who led it?

1901, led by Victor Chernov. They became the biggest threat to Tsarist rule before the October 1917 revolution


What was the Union of Liberation and when was it founded?

It was founded in 1904 by Pyotr Struve, and demanded greater freedoms and justice for all Russians. In particular, the Union wanted fairer and more land distribution for peasants, a representative Constituent Assembly and improved conditions for industrial workers


What were the Kadets?

The Kadets was the cumulation of the clamour for a constitutional monarchy, and was led by Paul Milyukov. This was the intellectual arm of the Liberal movement, and went on to play an important role as opposition within the first Duma


What were the Octobrists?

The Octobrists were a moderate liberal group consisting of individuals like Alexander Guchkov and Mikhail Rodzianko who displayed loyalty to the Tsar but wanted changes to the system of government


Was opposition successful before 1917?

The major political changes promised in the October Manifesto were largely cancelled out by the Fundamental Laws and the Romanov dynasty remained intact until Nicholas II failed with the First World War. The lack of effective opposition before 1917 was due partly to the control exerted by successive Tsars, but also to the lack of unity within and between opposition groups


What opposition did the Provisional Government face?

The main concern of the Provisional Government was the growing strength of workers' committees, especially in Petrograd. The vast majority of these committees were opposed to the interim government and were prepared to listen to what other opposition groups, such as the Bolsheviks, had to offer


How did Lenin consolidate power in regards to the Constituent Assembly?

Lenin believed that the Bolsheviks would not be able to achieve and consolidate power through future elections to the assembly, and therefore chose to use military force to end it. The official justification for such action was that the elections had been rigged


What did Lenin do in 1921 after the Red Army victory?

He presented a paper 'On Party Unity', which laid the base for making all other parties illegal, and banned factionalism within the Bolshevik Party. From 1921 to 1964, Russia remained a one-party state.


What internal opposition did Lenin face?

After the overthrow of the Provisional Government, a number of prominent Bolsheviks, including Kamenev, Zinoviev and Rykov, called for a coalition to be formed with other socialist groups. Although some left-wing SRs were allowed to join ranks, Lenin bullied his Bolshevik colleagues into rejecting an alliance with opposing political groups


How was the United Opposition group dealt with?

Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinoviev formed the United Opposition, but their opposition to the NEP and their demands for more 'free speech' were treated with contempt, and all were excluded from the Politburo. In 1927 Trotsky was expelled from the party, and in January 1929 he was expelled from the USSR altogether


How did Stalin deal with Bukharin?

Bukharin was vocal in expressing his concerns in regards to collectivisation, and as a result of joining forces with Kamenev, was branded a factionalist, and in 1929 was ousted from his positions as president of Cominterm, editor of Pravda and member of the Politburo


What happened during the purges of the 1930s?

Party members who failed to implement collectivisation adequately, or who disagreed with dekulakisation lost their party card, reducing total party membership by about a tenth, and during the 1930s the party shed a further third of its members who were seen to be resisting the pace of industrialisation and collectivisation. From the mid-1930s some prominent Politburo members were exiled or executed after being called oppositionists, and by 1939, Kirov, Kossior, Ordhonikze, Kuibyshev and Rudzuki were dead


Why was peasant unrest taken seriously, and what was the main cause of upset?

At any point in time the peasants constituted 70-80% of the population of Russia, and riots mainly occurred because of land distribution and access to food


What caused peasant unrest from 1916?

Peasants protested at high food prices, and the pressure of rising demand for food from urban dwellers, and it was exacerbated by the lack of technology and materials needed to improve productivity


What was the impact of worker opposition?

The average working day was reduced from 11.5 hours in 1897 to 7 hours in the 1960s, and official inspection and administration of working conditions was established