Flashcards in Peasants Deck (30):
When were the Serfs emancipated?
1861, but were still not full citizens
How long were redemption dues in place for and how many peasants could begin to afford to pay by 1870?
Redemption dues were in place for 49 years and only 55% of peasants could afford to begin to pay by 1870
What did the Mir oversee?
They oversaw the cultivation of land and tax collections. Collective decisions were made about crop-growing, change to holdings that adapted to circumstance (death) could only happen through the mir and free physical movement was prevented by land passports
What happened with the assassination of Alexander II?
There was a tightening of authority with Land Captains in 1889 introduced to oversee the Mir
What did Alexander III do to improve peasant lives?
He abolished the salt and poll taxes, lowered redemption dues and introduced the Peasant Land Bank
What caused the 1891 famine and how many people died?
350,000 people died and it was a result of the export of grain during a shortage to fuel industrial growth
What benefits did the peasants receive in 1905?
Redemption payments were ended, internal passports were abolish and peasants were seen as full citizens for the first time
What was the Imperial Land Decree and when was it passed?
It was introduced in November 1906 and made full law in 1910 and meant the peasants could leave the mir and consolidate his strips in one holding. He could pass the property onto his heirs without mir interference
How many people became Kulaks as part of Stolypin's 'Wager on the Strong'?
Some 2.8 million of 12 million
How many people migrated to new areas between 1906 and 1914?
What did the crop area of Siberia and Kazakhstan increase to between 1906 and 1914?
It doubled from 12 million acres in 1906 to 24 million acres in 1914
What happened to farm machinery as a result of state support?
Factory production of farm machinery grew from 13 million roubles in value in 1900 to 60 million roubles in value in 1913, leading to an increase in the use of iron ploughs over wooden ploughs by 1910
What impact did agricultural schools have on literacy rates?
It led to a significant reduction in illiteracy, with 51% literacy amongst men in 1897 reaching 82% by 1920
What did the Land Decree mean for land and when was it passed?
It was passed on the 8th November 1917 and meant that Private property in land was removed - the state owned land and you couldn't trade land
How successful was the setting up of collective farms?
Not very successful - only 600,000 out of 10 million peasants worked in them for the Bolsheviks. There were 4,400 state run 'Sovkhoz' farms, but this is also a meagre amount
What did the NEP mean for agriculture?
No more requisitioning of agricultural profucs, an 10% tac in kind was taken instead and the peasants could sell whatever else they produced
What was the Land Code?
It was brought in in 1922 and legalised the Peasants title to land they owned, but affirming it so that it also belonged to the people as a whole
How many peasants were still using wooden ploughs under Lenin?
What were MTS stations?
They were created to distribute technology but kept an eye on the peasants and only gave them equipment when they met quotas
What was the predominant form of resistance to collectivisation?
Slaughtering and eating cattle
What was the Law of Seven Eighths
It was put in place to imprison people for 10 years if they stole anything, eve an few flecks of corn
What changes did Khrushchev bring to collective farms?
Collective farms were enlarged and higher prices were paid by the state for produce in order to try and alleviate rural poverty (known as the State Pricing Mechanism)
What happened to MTS stations under Khrushchev?
MTS stations wer abandoned and technology was made available for the whole collective
How many people migrated for the Virgin Lands Scheme and where did they migrate to?
50,000 people migrated to Kazakhstan and Western Siberia
What were peasant houses called under the Tsars?
Izbas, which were wooden huts that were often shared with other families
What happened to housing under the Communists?
Stalin created 'collective housing' which was overcrowded. Khrushchev developed greater living space in agro-towns although they were poor quality
What was the Medele'ev Tariff famine and when did it happen?
It happened in 1891 when adverse weather resulted in half the provinces of Russia suffering from food shortages and this was exacerbated with the Medele'ev Tariff, leading to 350,000 deaths
What was the Famine of 1921?
Droughts and Bolshevik policies towards the immediate post war food crisis contributed to the famine, and Ukrainian food production fell by 20% during this time. Due to an almost complete shutdown of the Russian railway system which emanated from the Civil War, it was hard to transport food and the end result was a death toll of over 5 million
What caused the Famine of 1932-1934?
It was a combination of the effects of the first stage of collectivisation and poor harvests due to poor weather. The death penalty was imposed for stealing grain, and the reaction of the peasants worsened effects where they slaughtered animals rather than hand them over to the authorities, leading to a horse shortage