Flashcards in War and Revolution Deck (42):
Why did the Crimean War break out?
It broke out over an obscure quarrel based around Christian and Orthodox monks but was pushed through by aggressive and confident leaders, including Nicholas I. Although Russia had initial success against Turkey, this brought Britain and France into the war, who sieged Sebastapol and inflicted significant casualties
What happened when Alexander II took over the war effort?
Nicholas I died as the war progressed and Alexander II ended the war, agreeing to return to the policy of closure of the straits, blocking Russian access to the Mediterranean
How many casualties were a result of the Crimean war?
75,000, many of disease
What main observations were made about the defeat in the Crimean war?
Russian organisation, communication and industry were all inferior, and modern soldiers had defeated a serf army and industrial growth and modernity in the west had been decisive
What was changed as a result of the Crimean war?
Modernisation was sought - liberalisation of the legal system, educational change, military reform and government changes were brought in, but there were still restrictions on change and autocracy remained
When did the Crimean War take place?
October 1853 to February 1856
What caused the Russo-Turkish war?
It was caused by continuing Russian ambitions to dominate the area, although the immediate cause was a massacre of Christian Orthodox rebels by Turkish forces in the Balkans
When did the Russo-Turkish war take place?
Where did Russia attack in the Russo-Turkish war and were the attacks successful?
Russia attacked on two fronts (Balkans and Caucasus) and both were successful for Russia but at high costs, and Turkey was supported by British finance and weapons
What happened to Russian victories in the Russo-Turkish war?
They were overturned at the Congress of Berlin
Why were there no major reforms brought about at the end of the Russo-Turkish war?
The war was seen more positively at home and was not fought against a modernised country, and the war was quite short and the mood was generally positive and pro-Tsar
What led to the Russo-Japanese war?
In the late 1800s there was a shift of emphasis to the Far East, but still about taking over control of a falling empire (China)
When did the Russo-Japanese war take place?
What were the short term causes of the Russo-Japanese war?
Japan had taken Port Arthur in Manchuria. Russia had forced Japan to hand it over and took control of the area, promising to leave in 1903. Negotiations failed and Japan attacked without warning in January 1904
Why did the Russians lose the Russo-Japanese war?
Russia was expected to win with ease but the Russian Navy could not break out of the blockade of Port Arthur and it fell in January 1905. Naval forces were defeated at Tsushima in May 1905 after an 18,000 mile journey
What unrest did the Russo-Japanese war lead to?
News of defeat arrived at the same time as growing discontent, inflation and shortages, leading to Bloody Sunday and a year of revolution, as people blamed the Tsar for the inferiority of the army
What was Nicholas II's response to the 1905 Revolution?
He responded with the October Manifesto, although political change had limits
Why was the Russo-Japanese war so significant?
It hit at a time where there was a rise in various opposition groups, the 1905 Revolution, which the war initiated, was the biggest ever seen in Russia, and the political and economic changes brought about by the war, though still limited, were highly significant
Why did Russia enter the First World War?
To protect Slavs in Serbia following the assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand. Russia did not want Austrian control of the Balkans
What was the impact of the military reforms since 1905 on the First World War?
They worked well initially and brought quicker mobilisation than expected and some early victories, however, superior German tactics and leadership brought crushing victories at Tannenburg and Masurian Lakes
What led to a political crisis in 1915?
The Tsar's decision to lead the war personally and with Rasputin's influence at home
What led to the Tsar's abdication?
Strikes and inflation hit the cities in winter 1916-1917, leading to demonstrations and revolution in February 1917, resulting in the Tsar's abdication
What was the impact of the First World War on Russia?
No other war in the period led to a leader's overthrow, with huge economic damage, 300% inflation and social disintegration and peasant land seizures
What did the Provisional Government choose to do in regards to war?
The chose to continue with the war, and although this was initially popular, it helped to raise support for the Bolsheviks by the end of 1917
What other factors were reasons for Bolshevik success?
Lenin's leadership, Kerensky's decision making, the Kornilov coup and the economy
What happened as a result of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
Lenin signed away huge amounts of land, causing huge opposition in the Baltic States, parts of Ukraine and Poland
What was the Civil War a reaction to?
It was a reaction to Bolshevik seizure of power and Brest-Litovsk
What minority was notably suppressed as a result of the Civil War?
Why did the Whites lose the Civil War?
There was a great deal of disorganisation, the Reds held the centre and main cities, and the Red Army was well organised by Trotsky, giving rewards and promotions based on skill rather than class
How many people died as a result of the Civil War?
When was Russia invaded by Germany?
Despite the Nazi-Soviet pact, Russia was invaded in 1941 in World War II
What were the negative impacts of the Nazi invasion of the USSR?
Nazi forces almost reached the main cities before winter set in, Leningrad suffered a 900 day siege and 21 million people died; 13.7% of the population as opposed to 0.97% in Britain - the human impact was greater than any war in Russian history
What were some positive outcomes of the Nazi invasion and the Second World War?
The Russians started to push back the Nazis in 1943, eventually occupying Eastern European countries. It was the only major war of the period that Russia won, even against a strong superpower. Land was recovered and new land taken and Stalin's position was strengthened
What happened as a result of Stalin's paranoia after the war?
Political repression and paranoia went into overdrive, and the Leningrad affair pushed out war heroes Stalin suspected of trying to take credit
What were the impacts of the Cold War on economy?
The war led to a costly arms race and nuclear diplomacy, with huge pressure placed on keeping up with the west at the behest of consumerism
What happened in East Germany in 1953?
In East Germany, as a result of reparations, the people suffered shortages, leading to strikes and demonstrations, and order was only restored when Russian tanks appeared on the streets
What happened in Poland in 1956?
As a result of de-Stalinisation, serious riots broke out in Poznan as workers protested against their low wages and living standards. There was a meeting between Gomulka and Khrushchev and tanks were used to clear the streets
What happened in Hungary in 1956?
After Hungary tried to withdraw membership from the Warsaw Pact, Khrushchev ordered Russian tanks into Budapest, leading to a full scale uprising, and over 20,000 Hungarians were killed as a result of this
What reforms were made to the military and by who after the Crimean War?
They were made by Dmitrii Milyutin from 1862 to 1874, and the service length in the army was reduced to fifteen years, training was modernised and rigorous instruction was provided for officers, leading to a far more professional army
What were the consequences of the Crimean war?
The emancipation of the Serfs, the introduction of a Zemstva, military reforms and expansion of the railway system
What were Russian casualties in the First World War?
8 million casualties, including 1.7 million dead and 2.4 million captured