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Flashcards in Nature of Government Deck (55):

Who created the 'Three Pillars of Tsarism' and what were the pillars?

Pobedonestsev, Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Nationality


How did Lenin alter traditional Marxism?

He believed that he could skip the bourgeoisie stage of the revolution by creating a dictatorship of the proletariat


What did Stalin reimpose that Lenin had previously removed?

Superstructure, whereby his state would plan the road to socialism, Lenin had removed the old Tsarist superstructure


What did Khrushchev revert to as part of De-Stalinisation?

He reverted to a more party-based ideology, removing the cult of personality around Stalin and freeing Society to express further opinions


What was the Tsars' initial system of government?

It had a Council of Ministers, Committee of Ministers, and an Imperial Chancery which essentially all acted as advisors


What adaptations were brought in to the system of government after 1905?

There was only a Council of Ministers that passed laws through the elected Duma and State Council


What were some failures of the Duma?

Elections to the Duma were through electoral colleges and many people were disenfranchised. The Tsar dissolved the first two Dumas within months as they did not support his ministers well. There were two more subservient Dumas


How did Nicholas II reassert his authority in 1906?

He imposed the Fundamental Laws in 1906 and had Article 87, which allowed him to make decisions without the Duma


What was the democratic looking system used by the Communists?

There were elections through village, town, provincial and regional Soviets to the All Russian Congress of Soviets. The cabinet 'Sovnarkom' would be chosen from that


What was the reality of the democratic looking Communist system?

The party told Sovnarkom what to do. The Politburo dominated the Central Committee and orders were passed down and managed by leading cadres and approved nomenklatura


What organised and controlled the party during Lenin's reign?

The Ogburo and the Orgburo


What was the Lenin Enrolment and in what year did it take place?

The Lenin Enrolment occurred in 1924 and was an attempt to get more peasants into the party, but in reality officials tended to be old bourgeoisie managers


What did Stalin create in 1936?

Stalin created the new constitution which gave more theoretical powers and representation to minorities through the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities, but in reality he was still totally in charge through the Presidium


What organisations did Stalin create to make his state all encompassing?

He created GOSPLAN for economic planning and COMECON and Cominform for International links


How did Khrushchev adapt the Stalinist system of government?

He didn't really change the system but removed old Stalinist supporters like Beria and gave more decentralised control to party officials, he kept the Presidium but there was more emphasis on the Politburo


What did the Tsars have as a local government?

The Tsars had local government in the form of the Zemstvo but they had limited powers


What were the Communist local governments?

The Communists had the Soviets but they were controlled by the party


What was the judiciary under the Tsars?

The Judiciary of the Tsars tended to be the Senate, and they did have some trial by jury and non-bribery of judges but political cases were dealt with by the Tsar and Ministers


How did the Communists enforce justice?

They legalised terror and followed revolutionary justice which led to events such as the Show Trials in the 1930s


What did all leaders use to maintain order?

Repression, Reform and Censorship


What were the Tsars' secret police called?

The Tsars had the Third Section and the Ohkrana after 1881


What were the Third Section used for?

They placed people in administrative exile or in prison as 'Guests of the Tsar' in Siberian camps


What were the Ohkrana used for?

The Ohkrana worked similarly to the Third Section but used varied tactics, particularly sending in Agents Provocateur to sabotage opposition such as Father Gapon and Bloody Sunday


What was Lenin's form of secret police?

Lenin used the Cheka, led by Dzerzhinsky to administer the Red Terror and root out class enemies in the Civil War


What was Stalin's form of secret police?

Stalin reconstituted the Ogburo into the NKVD who led the Great Purges. There were 40m people passing through Gulags compared to the 3,900 in Siberia in 1901


Who led the NKVD throughout Stalin's reign?

Yagoda, who was purged, Yezhov, who was purged after he unleashed the Great Terror, and Beria, who was executed by Khrushchev


What happened to the Secret Police under Khrushchev?

Khrushchev dismantled the NKVD and gave ordinary police powers to the MVD and international espionage became important for the new KGB


What did the Tsars use the army for?

They crushed Bloody Sunday and the Lena Goldfields strike in 1912 with it


How was the Red Army used?

The Red Army had 5m soldiers by the end of the Civil War and was used to requisition grain then and during the collectivisation process. Khrushchev used it more do deal with revolt in satellite states such as East Germany in 1953 and Hungary in 1956


How many officers did Stalin purge before World War II?

Stalin purged 40% of officers before World War II and arrested many more after the war due to fear of links to the West. War hero Marshal Zukhov was exiled.


When did periods of Glasnost occur and what did this lead to?

There were periods of Glasnost under Alexander II, Nicholas II and Khrushchev, and in each case revolutionary material and periodicals increased dramatically


How did Lenin spread Communist ideas?

He closed down all non-Bolshevik newspapers and used Pravda and Izvestiya to spread Communist ideas


What restrictions did Stalin place on writers?

All were forced into the Union of Soviet Writers and forced to adhere to Socialist Realism, removing all western influences


How did the Tsars use propaganda?

The Tsars rarely used propaganda apart from Portraits and the 'Little Father' idea spread by the Church. They stepped up after 1905 with things such as the 300 year Romanov Parade in St Petersburg


How did the Communists use propaganda?

The Communists used a wide variety of media; films, art and music promoting Socialist Realism. The Stakhanovite movement also encouraged hard work for Stalin's goals


How was reform predominantly used under the Tsars?

Reform was predominantly used to appease opposition, such as the Emancipation, the October Manifesto and Stolypin's Agrarian Reforms, although they did use it to modernise and try and catch up with the west economically and militarily


How did the Communists use reform?

Reform tended to act as a repressive measure as well as being ideological, such as War Communism, the Five Year Plans and Collectivisation. Although there were altruistic reforms during Khrushchev's era, with the Virgin Lands Scheme and De-Stalinisation. Only the NEP can be totally attributed to appeasing opposition


How did the Provisional Government show that they desired political change?

Through the creation of the Constituent Assembly and 8 Liberal Principles, however it was run by 'old school' members of the Progressive Bloc in the Duma


How did the Provisional Government use repressive measures?

They used Punishment Brigades and Kerensky assumed a more dictatorial role


Who were some significant individuals who influenced leaders?

The Milyutin Brothers, Witte, Pobedonostsev, Stolypin, Trotsky, Rasputin, Dzerzhinsky, Kirov, Zinoviev, Beria, Kaganovich, Molotov


When did the first Duma take place, and why was it disbanded?

The first Duma took place between April and July 1906, and was dissolved after the government made a statement that compulsory land redistribution was not an option, which angered the Duma whose more radical solution quickly gained press coverage, leading to Nicholas II disbanding it


What were the consequences of the first Duma?

A new approach to dealing with dissidents was adopted, sparked by the arrest, trial and imprisonment of key Kadet and Labourist party members who had signed the Vyborg Manifesto. The approach to dealing with them became known as Stolypin's neckties


When did the second Duma take place and why was it disbanded?

It took place between February and June 1907, and the Tsar and Stolypin continued to mistrust the work of the Duma over land reform. When a Social Democrat member of the Duma was framed for attempting to arrange an army mutiny, the Tsar claimed that the Duma was subversive and dissolved it


What were Justices of the Peace?

Landowners appointed by officials to maintain law and order at a local level. They worked in conjunction with the police


What were Land Captains?

Landowners who were appointed form 1889 onwards, mainly to supervise the work of the Zemstva


When did the third Duma take place and what benefits did it bring?

It took place between November 1907 and June 1912 and consisted mainly of people loyal to the crown, and during this period, major reforms strengthened the army and navy, and the judicial system was further improved with the reinstatement of Justices of the Peace and the abolition of Land Captains. For the first time, state-run insurance schemes were introduced


When did the fourth Duma take place?

It took place from November 1912 to February 1917


What was the Progressive Bloc?

The Progressive Bloc was a group within the fourth Duma, consisting of members of the Kadets, Octobrists, Nationalists and Party of Progressives, who challenged the authority of Nicholas II


What happened to the government under the Provisional Government?

The Petrograd Soviet was formed alongside the provisional Duma committee, and this was the foundation of governance through a duel authority


What was Soviet Order No. 1?

It gave the Petrograd Soviet total control over the Russian military


When was the Third Section replaced with the Okhrana?



What was the army reduced to under Khrushchev?

It was reduced from 3.6 million to 2.4 million


How many books were being published per year by the late 1950s?

65,000 books were published per year, twice the number that came out in the mid-1920s


What was the total readership of newspapers by the early 1960s?

60 million


When were the Zemstva created?

1864, with the Duma being created in 1870