Infancy and Childhood Flashcards Preview

Psychology Final 2018 > Infancy and Childhood > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infancy and Childhood Deck (19):
1

what is the rooting primitive reflex?

stroking baby's cheek and their head turning in that direction

2

what is the moro primitive reflex?

the "startled" reflex. babies arms flail out in response to them being startled.

3

What was Piaget’s approach to cognitive development?

theory of cognitive stages

4

What are Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?

1. sensorimotor stage
2. preoperational stge
3. concrete operations stage
4. formal operations stage

5

describe the sensorimotor stage

-birth to 2 years
-looking, sucking, touching
-develop object permanence

6

object permanence

something continues to exist even when it cannot be seen (i.e. peek-a-boo)

7

preoperational stage

-age 2 to 7
-egocentric
-animistic thinking
-cannot grasp the concept of conservation

8

concrete operations stage

-age 7 to 11
-can understand conservation
-can understand transitivity

9

formal operations stage

-age 11 to adulthood
-abstract reasoning
-thinking about future possibilities

10

conservation


understanding that physical properties do not change when appearance changes (i.e. having two glasses of the same with the same amount of water. ask child if they have the same amount of water. take a glass of different size, but pour the same amount of water in it. ask them if both glasses still have the same amount of water)

11

What is Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development?


aka, Vygotsky’s theory of sociocultural influences, Cognitive development results from guidance

12

scaffolding


teacher adjusts amount of support to child’s level of development (i.e. teaching a child how to swim. first float, then add arms ... )

13

What were the results of Harlow’s studies of infant attachment?

Harlow found that soft contact is important. Rhesus baby monkeys preferred cloth mothers over wire mothers, even though the wire mothers had food.

14

How did Mary Ainsworth study attachment?


With the strange situation. (Secure base) Had a mother, her child, and stranger in the room. The stranger interacted with the baby more and more. The mother left temporarily. Observe baby's actions. securely attached babies would cry until comforted by mothers

15

explain secure attachment style

when mom leaves, baby cries

16

explain Insecure-anxious/ambivalent style

not sure whether or not they could trust mom

17

explain insecure-avoidant style

doesn't care if mom leaves comes back

18

What are the resulting 4 parenting styles and How do parenting styles predict later outcomes?

-Authoritarian-lower grades, lower self esteem
-Authoritative-most optimal, higher grades, cooperative
-Permissive- easily fustrated, low self-control
-Uninvolved - low self esteem, emotionally detached

BUT ... VARIES BY CULTURE

19

What are Baumrind’s 2 dimensions of parenting?

uninvolved
-low warmth, low control
-least effective, most detrimental

authoritative
-high warmth, high control
-not overly demanding or hostile
-child-centered