Flashcards in Infancy and Childhood Deck (19):
what is the rooting primitive reflex?
stroking baby's cheek and their head turning in that direction
what is the moro primitive reflex?
the "startled" reflex. babies arms flail out in response to them being startled.
What was Piaget’s approach to cognitive development?
theory of cognitive stages
What are Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?
1. sensorimotor stage
2. preoperational stge
3. concrete operations stage
4. formal operations stage
describe the sensorimotor stage
-birth to 2 years
-looking, sucking, touching
-develop object permanence
something continues to exist even when it cannot be seen (i.e. peek-a-boo)
-age 2 to 7
-cannot grasp the concept of conservation
concrete operations stage
-age 7 to 11
-can understand conservation
-can understand transitivity
formal operations stage
-age 11 to adulthood
-thinking about future possibilities
understanding that physical properties do not change when appearance changes (i.e. having two glasses of the same with the same amount of water. ask child if they have the same amount of water. take a glass of different size, but pour the same amount of water in it. ask them if both glasses still have the same amount of water)
What is Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development?
aka, Vygotsky’s theory of sociocultural influences, Cognitive development results from guidance
teacher adjusts amount of support to child’s level of development (i.e. teaching a child how to swim. first float, then add arms ... )
What were the results of Harlow’s studies of infant attachment?
Harlow found that soft contact is important. Rhesus baby monkeys preferred cloth mothers over wire mothers, even though the wire mothers had food.
How did Mary Ainsworth study attachment?
With the strange situation. (Secure base) Had a mother, her child, and stranger in the room. The stranger interacted with the baby more and more. The mother left temporarily. Observe baby's actions. securely attached babies would cry until comforted by mothers
explain secure attachment style
when mom leaves, baby cries
explain Insecure-anxious/ambivalent style
not sure whether or not they could trust mom
explain insecure-avoidant style
doesn't care if mom leaves comes back
What are the resulting 4 parenting styles and How do parenting styles predict later outcomes?
-Authoritarian-lower grades, lower self esteem
-Authoritative-most optimal, higher grades, cooperative
-Permissive- easily fustrated, low self-control
-Uninvolved - low self esteem, emotionally detached
BUT ... VARIES BY CULTURE