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Psychology Final 2018 > Health and Happiness > Flashcards

Flashcards in Health and Happiness Deck (11):

What are problem-focused coping

actions taken to change a stressful situation or reduce its effects


What is emotion-focused coping?

attempts to reduce distress emotions


What was Rodin and Langer’s (1976) “plant study?”

- Greater control -> lower stress response, better health
- Controllable vs. uncontrollable electric shock to rats
- Rodin & Langer, 1976 – plant study (gave control to nursing home residents)


What is optimism, and how is it related to health?

- Tendency to believe that one will generally experience good vs. bad outcomes
- Generally associated with positive health outcomes


What is the relation between social support and health?

- Social support -> better health
- Individuals with small social networks – 2x as likely to die as individuals with large social networks (Berkman & Syme, 1979)


What are the mechanisms associated with social resources

- Cognitive appraisal
- Health behaviors
- Psychoneuroimmunological pathways (e.g., lower sympathetic nervous system arousal, lower levels of epinephrine)


Reducing stress – Expressive writing

- Expressing emotional experiences
- Lower stress, health benefits


Reducing stress – Exercise

- Reduces physical effects of stress
- Reduces emotional strain
- Lower anxiety, depression
- e.g., Hoffman et al., 2011 - study of stress and excercise


Reducing Stress – Meditation

- Focus and control attention
- Relaxation response: physiological result of meditation
- Blood pressure ↓
- Respiration rate ↓
- Mindfulness meditation – awareness and focus on present moment
- Associated with positive health outcomes


Reducing stress – Religiosity

religious attendance, finding strength and comfort from one's religious beliefs


Reducing stress – Gratitude and Kindness

- Expressing or noting gratitude -> lower stress
- Doing acts of kindness -> lower stress