Flashcards in Antisocial and Prosocial Relations Deck (16):
How does social identity theory explain prejudice? What is in-group bias?
individuals seek to feel positively about the groups to which they belong because self-esteem partially depends on identifying with social groups. (attitude)
positive feelings and behavior toward people in our in-group. For example, the people we hang out with in ODASIS (favoritism)
What was the minimal group experiment (Tajfel, 1971)?
Strangers formed into groups using trivial criteria (Tajfel, 1971). Given choice about amount of $ given to in-group and out-group. Would you rather give the in-group $2 and the out-group $1 or give the in-group $3 and the out-group $4?
What was Jane Elliot’s blue-eyed and brown-eyed experiment?
Third grade teacher wanted to teach students about prejudice. The first day, she said "the blue-eyed kids are better than all of the brown-eyed kids". Brown eyed kids had to wear a collar for the rest of the day. The next day, she said "the brown-eyed kids are better than all of the blue-eyed kids"
How does categorization explain stereotyping?
Our brains would automatically classify people into specific groups based on actions, behavior, and physical appearance.
How does the confirmation bias explain stereotyping?
tendency to notice and remember events that are consistent with our existing beliefs
shows us how deeply rooted our prejudices are
If I said "all black people are fast" and I go to a track event and all of the first place winners are black, this would be confirmation bias and stereotyping.
What is cooperative interdependence? What is a jigsaw classroom?
relationship in which the outcomes of two people or groups depend on each others’ actions
to eliminate competition and introduce cooperation in classrooms . form groups of people from different groups. Teacher says "there's a test next week. I will assign each person a fact that will be on the test." It is up to each student that they make sure everyone else in the group knows that piece of info.
What is the frustration-aggression hypothesis?
suggests that frustration increases probability of aggressive response
How are pain and heat related to aggression?
As pain increases, aggression increases. As the heat increases, aggression increases.
How do similarity, familiarity, and proximity predict liking?
similiarity - (“birds of a feather flock together”)
familiarity - liking those we see often
Proximity – liking those nearby
What is the mere exposure effect? How has this been demonstrated in studies (e.g., college students shown pictures of faces; mirror image study)?
repeated exposure to a person increases our liking for the person.
College students shown pictures of faces liking measured
Mirror image study - Monkeys saw guy eating ice cream and they got the same effect, as their neurons fired..
How does symmetry predict attraction?
The more symmetrical a person's face is (Halle Berry), the more attractive they seem.
What happened to Kitty Genovese?
She was murdered on the street while 38 neighbors stood by and did nothing. No one helped because of bystander effect
What is the bystander effect?
the larger the number of people to witness an event, the less likely people are going to take action
What was Diffusion of responsibility – what was the seizure study (Darley & Latané, 1968)?
the presence of other people makes each individual feel less personally responsible
If we are the only person needing help, we feel responsible
- Participant engages in group discussion over intercom
-Group size varied – 2-, 3-, or 6-person group
-Confederate stages seizure -> will participant help? When the participant felt that they were the only ones, they were more likely to help. As the group size increased, the likelihood of helping decreased
What is Pluralistic ignorance – what was the smoke-filled room study (Latané & Darley, 1968)?
tendency of bystanders to assume nothing is wrong in an emergency because no one else looks concerned. (What do other people do? Do they help?)
Smoke-filled room study (Latané & Darley, 1970)
Participants take survey; smoke starts pouring into the room
Group size varied – 1- or 3-person group
Will they report smoke? If other confederates don't think it's an emergency, then I don't have to either