# Instruments And Ilusions Flashcards

1
Q

Gyroscopic instruments

A

two principles. There has to be a source of power to keep the gyro spinning. With vacuum system the attitude and heading indicator is driven by the vacuum system. The turn coordinator is electrically driven for redundancy. The gyro spins on a horizontal plane. Dual gimbal, gimbal rotation, roll gimbal, pitch gimbal gyro, horizontal reference arm, and bank index

2
Q

Gyroscopic principle 1: Rigidity in Space

A

a wheel with a heavily weighted rim tends to remain in the plane in which it is spinning unless acted on by an outside force. No matter where you move the base of the gyro it will remain in the plane

3
Q

Gyroscopic principle 2: Procession

A

any force applied to a gyro or a spinning object will be felt 90 degrees ahead in the plane of rotation

4
Q

Principles and instruments

A

Attitude indicator- rigidity and space
Turn coordinator- procession

5
Q

Vacuum pump

A

Relies on vacuum pressure through a vacuum pump to create suction to spin gyroscopes. Pulls through an air filter to the instruments and then to a relief valve then to an overboard vent.

6
Q

Vacuum pump errors

A

Indication of low vacuum, suction gauge reading low, 4.8-5.2in hg is normal.
If it completely fails the attitude indicator will fall off.
Heading indicator will freeze and won’t move. Auxiliary driven pump is back up.
Shear drive on the vacuum pump breaks off if the vacuum goes to fats, this is a plastic piece on the vacuum pump

7
Q

Attitude Indicator

A

Consist of miniature aircraft
Principle of operation- shows direct indication of pitch and bank. Operates in the principle of rigidity and space.
The gyro spins on a horizontal plane mounted on dual gimbal
Pendulous vane- located at the bottom of the gyro corrects for unwanted procession. It deflects the other way for correction. Depends if the inlets are open or closed. Open due to gravity when the gyro strays away from horizontal
Rigidity and space

8
Q

Attitude indicator Errors

A

The forces placed on the gyro
Acceleration/deceleration- Acceleration slight pitch up, deceleration slight pitch down
Instrument tumbling- 60 degrees of pitch or 100 degrees of bank. The instrument will tumble and won’t become reliable. It will keep spinning. Caging stops the gyro from spinning and spinning
Maximum when rolling out of a 180 degree turn- Show a false pitch and bank in the opposite direction. 360 degrees it will cancel.

9
Q

Attitude indicator preflight check

A

Attitude Indicator up and erect within 5 minutes
No more then 5 degrees bank or one bar of pitch on taxi turns
Miniature aircraft set to horizon

10
Q

A

Provides heading information (magnetic compass) Magnetic North

11
Q

A

Operates on the principle of rigidity in space
Senses aircraft movement about the vertical axis (yaw)
Slaved vs Free gyros. Slave automatically aligns to the magnetic compass. Free gyros manually has to be set to the magnetic compass
Gyro mounted in the vertical plane so it spins vertical plane
Dual gimbals are required because the a/c rolls and yaws
Keeps the gyro fixed in the vertical plane
Doesn’t have a mechanism to correct for precession

12
Q

A

Procession causes the heading indicator to drift from its set heading. It’s kind of like friction is always messing with it.
Reset with Magnetic compass every 15 minutes. Due to the earth’s rotation
Only in straight and level unaccelerated flight it will be most accurate

13
Q

A

Doesn’t process more than 3 degrees in 15 minutes

14
Q

Turn Indicator

A

Both show quality of turn Inclinometer. Works on the principle of procession

Turn and Slip indicator:
Rate of turn information only
Mounted vertically

Turn coordinator:
Rate of turn and rate of roll information
Mounted canted (30 degrees)

15
Q

Turn Indicator Principle of Operation

A

Operates on the principle of precession
Allows the pilot to establish and maintain standard rate turn 3 degrees per second/ 2 minutes 360, 1 minute 180, 30 seconds 90 degrees, 15 sec 45 degrees, 10 second 30 degrees.
Equation (TAS/10) + 5 = Angle of Bank
Slip- ball on the inside of the turn. Not enough rate of turn for the amount of Bank
Skid-ball on the outside of the turn. Too much rate of turn for the amount of bank

16
Q

Turn indicator Preflight check

A

Inclinometer full of fluid and centered
Wings level while stationary
Skidding turn on the ground
Wings into the turn, ball on the outside

17
Q

Magnetic Compass

A

is the most primal and basic instruments used by the pilot to determine or verify aircraft heading. The instrument operations on the principles of magnetism. Can’t freeze because the fluid is kerosene.

18
Q

Magnetic Compass Errors: Deviation

A

Due to interference to magnetism in the aircraft. Need a Magnetic deviation card in A/C

19
Q

Magnetic compass error: Variation

A

also known as declination errors, stem from the disparity between magnetic north and true north. This difference varies depending on geographical location and must be accounted for during navigation

20
Q

Magnetic compass errors: Magnetic dip theory

A

Dip errors are caused by the tilt of the compass needle caused by the Earth’s magnetic field. As one moves closer to the magnetic poles, the compass needle’s dip angle increases, leading to inaccuracies.

21
Q

Magnetic compass errors Oscillation

A

Oscillation errors refer to the unwanted swinging or movement of the compass needle, often caused by rough sea conditions or turbulent flight paths.

22
Q

Magnetic compass error North/South Turning Errors

A

North lags and south leads. UNOS, undershoot north overshoot south

23
Q

Magnetic compass error Acceleration/Deceleration

A

Shows Acceleration to the north, shows decelerate south only on a East or West heading

24
Q

Airspeed indicator

A

used in an aircraft to display the craft’s airspeed, typically in knots. Airspeed indication is accomplished with the use of a thin, corrugated phosphor bronze diaphragm (aneroid) which measures the Dynamic Pressure of the air between the Pitot tube (ram air) and static port (static pressure)

25
Q

Airspeed indicator Preflight

A

0 Taxi unless strong head wind
Call alive on takeoff

26
Q

Types of Airspeed: Indicated

A

Airspeed directly off the airspeed indicator

27
Q

Types of Airspeed: Calibrated

A

corrected for position and instrument error. Errors such as AOA, flap configuration, ground proximity, wind direction.

28
Q

Types of Airspeed: Equivalent

A

corrected for calibrated airspeed at airspeed above 200 knots and altitudes above 20,000

29
Q

Types of Airspeed: True airspeed

A

speed of the a/c relative to the calibrate airspeed corrected.TAS is therefore CAS corrected for non-standard temperature, with the help of an Outside Air Temperature (OAT) gauge, and altitude

30
Q

Types of Airspeed: Ground speed

A

is the actual speed of the airplane over the ground

31
Q

Altimeter

A

is a type of barometer which measures the vertical distance to the surface, necessary for a pilot to maintain the desired or assigned altitude during flight. Stack of sealed aneroid wafers (29.92)
Static source to the case of the instrument

32
Q

Altimeter preflight Check

A

Plus or minus 75 feet
Set to current altimeter setting

33
Q

Types of Altitude: Absolute Altitude

A

AGL height above ground level

34
Q

Types of Altitude: Pressure Altitude

A

Height above the standard datum of the plane. This is the altimeter reading that corresponds to the altitude in the standard atmosphere where the pressure is the same as you are

35
Q

Types of Altitude: Density Altitude

A

Pressure altitude corrected for non-standard temperature. This is most important to takeoff and climb performance of an aircraft

36
Q

Types of Altitude: Indicated Altitude

A

altitude read directly off the altimeter

37
Q

Types of Altitude: True Altitude

A

MSL height above mean sea level. Actual aircraft’s height above sea level

38
Q

Altimeter Errors: Pressure errors

A

High to low look out below (true altitude is lower than the indicated altitude. Low to high clear the sky (true altitude is higher than indicated.
If its Warmer your flying higher than what you actually are
If its colder your flying lower than what you actually are

39
Q

Vertical speed indicator

A

is an instrument that displays rate of climb and descent to the pilot by measuring rate-of-pressure changes
Soley operated off of static pressure.
Contains a diaphragm is connected to the static pressure
As aircraft climbs the static pressure in the diaphragm lowers. As aircraft descends the static pressure in the diaphragm increases. Displays trend and rate. Trend immediate indication, rate is gradual

40
Q

Vertical speed indicator Preflight check

A

If it indicates anything other than a zero feet per minute climb or descent on the ground, then the instrument can still be used, but that indication is the new “zero”

41
Q

Pitot static Blockages: Pitot tube block drain hole open

A

Airspeed 0

42
Q

Pitot static Blockages: Pitot tube and drain hole block

A

Airspeed indicator acts as an altimeter. When you ascend its going to read lower. When you descend its going to read higher

43
Q

Pitot static Blockages: Static port block

A

Airspeed only reads accurate at the aircraft the static port blocked. Altimeter will freeze when blocked. VSI will gradually go to 0.

44
Q

Alternate static

A

pulls air from the cockpit. Airspeed reads higher, Altimeter reads higher, VSI indicates a climb but gradually comes back down to 0

45
Q

PFD

A

PFD(primary flight display)- 6 pack instruments

46
Q

MFD

A

Multifunctional display

47
Q

Standby

A

Aspen and G5

48
Q

A

Uses the pitot tube, static source, OAT probe. ASI, ALT, VSI, OAT, TAS. Read X over it if there is an error

49
Q

A

Use solid state gyros, accelerometers, magnetometers (determines earth magnetic field one in each wing)

50
Q

Cross-check

A

Scanning instruments. A logical systematic observation of the instruments.

51
Q

Cross-check errors: Fixation

A

solely looking at 1 instrument excluding all others.

52
Q

Cross-check errors: Emphasis

A

Giving an instrument more attention than the others

53
Q

Different types of cross-checking: Selected radial cross-check

A

80-90% of scan is focused on the attitude indicator
The scan begins with attitude and branches out to various other instruments, but the scan always return to attitude before checking the next instrument branches will depend on maneuver

54
Q

Different types of cross-checking: Rectangular cross-check

A

Scan moves in a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction around the basic six-pack, thus creating a rectangular pattern
Gives equal weight to each instrument
Can lengthen the time between checking instruments critical for maneuver being performed

55
Q

Different types of cross-checking: Common cross-check

A

Common cross-check for a beginner is rapidly looking at different instruments without knowing why or what they are looking for
With experience the common cross-check becomes a habit, you look at the instruments needed for the given situation, you know what to look for and how long to look

56
Q

Instrument Interpretation

A

Understand the different errors of the instrument. Understanding what the instruments are telling you

57
Q

Aircraft control

A

Properly control the airplane to where it can move the most effectively

58
Q

Attitude instrument flying: Primary and supporting

A

Divides instruments panel into pitch, bank, and power instruments. Primary instruments provide the most essential information

59
Q

Primary/Supporting: Straight and level

A

Power: Primary= Airspeed/ Secondary= Tachometer and Manifold Pressure

Bank: Primary= Heading/ Secondary= Attitude Indicator, Turn Coordinator, and Magnetic compass

Pitch: Primary= Altimeter/ Secondary= Airspeed, Attitude indicator, and VSI

60
Q

Primary/Supporting: Starting Climb/Descent

A

Power: Primary= Tachometer/ Secondary= Airspeed and Manifold Pressure

Bank: Primary= Heading/ Secondary= Attitude Indicator, Turn coordinator, and Magnetic Compass

Pitch: Primary= Attitude/ Secondary= Airspeed, Altimeter, and VSI

61
Q

Primary/Supporting: Climb/Descent Constant Airspeed

A

Power: Primary= Tachometer/ Secondary= Airspeed and Manifold pressure

Bank: Primary= Heading/ Secondary= Attitude Indicator, TC, and Magnetic Compass

Pitch: Primary=Airspeed/ Secondary= Attitude Indicator, Altimeter, and VSI

62
Q

Primary/Supporting: Climb/Descent Constant Rate

A

Power: Primary= Tachometer/ Secondary= Airspeed and Manifold Pressure

Bank: Primary= Heading/ Secondary= Attitude Indicator, TC, and Magnetic Compass

Pitch: Primary= VSI/ Secondary= Airspeed, Attitude Indicator, and Altimeter

63
Q

Primary/Supporting: Starting a Turn

A

Power: Primary= Airspeed/ Secondary= Tachometer and Manifold Pressure

Bank: Primary= Attitude/ Secondary= Heading, TC, and magnetic compass

Pitch: Primary= Altimeter/ Secondary= Airspeed, Attitude Indicator, and VSI

64
Q

Primary/Supporting: Established in Turn

A

Power: Primary= Airspeed/Secondary=Tachometer and Manifold Pressure

Bank: Primary= Turn coordinator/ Secondary= Heading, Attitude Indicator, and Magnetic Compass

Pitch: Primary= Altimeter/ Secondary= Airspeed, Attitude Indicator, and VSI

65
Q

Control and Performance

A

Divide the instrument in 3 groups.

66
Q

Control and Performance: Control

A

(Independent variable) Tachometer and Attitude Indicator

67
Q

Control and Performance: Performance

A

how the plane responds to those conditions and changes. (Dependent variable) depends on the tachometer and attitude indicator. Airspeed indicator, Altimeter, Turn coordinator, Vertical speed indicator, Heading

68
Q

A

position of the A/C compared to a fix. VOR, GPS, Localizer, Glides slope

69
Q

How to use control and performance

A

establish an attitude and power setting on the control instruments that result in the desired performance. Prior knowledge of the aircraft

Trim- until control pressure is neutralized

Cross check- the performance instruments to determine if the established attitude or power setting is providing the desired performance. If a deviation is noted make the proper adjustments.

70
Q

Inversion

A

when you are climbing then you rapidly go to straight and level you can feel like you are tumbling backwards

71
Q

Coriolis

A

In a stablized turn and the fluid in your ear is stablized. If you move your head and the fluid in your ear becomes unstable and it can make you feel like you turning

72
Q

Elevator

A

caused by turbulence updraft, downdraft. Makes you feel like your climbing

73
Q

False horizon

A

Think the horizon is one place but its in a whole other place. Use instruments as reference

74
Q

Leans

A

get into an unnoticed turn and you ear noticed your turning and it makes you feel like your turning the other way when your really straight and level

75
Q

Autokinesis

A

Caused by staring at a single point of light against a dark background for more than a few seconds
After a few moments, the light appears to move on its own
The disoriented pilot will lose control of the aircraft in attempting to align it with the light

76
Q

Graveyard Spin/ Spiral

A

Spin: An abrupt stop can stimulate a spin in the opposite direction

Spiral: An observed loss of altitude during a coordinated constant-rate turn that has ceased stimulating the motion sensing system can create the illusion of being in a descent with the wings level

77
Q

Somatogravic

A

A rapid acceleration, like experienced during takeoff, stimulates the otolith organs in the same way as tilting the head backward
This action creates the illusion of having a nose-up attitude, especially in situations without good visual references
The disoriented pilot may push the aircraft into a nose-low or dive attitude

78
Q

Spatial disorientation

A

receiving conflicting messages from these 3 areas. the eyes, somatosensory skin muscles and joints and, vestibular system (inner ear, semicircular canal)