How does an act beocme criminal according to Becker?
No act is inherently criminal, become criminal when it is defined as such. Nature of the act is not criminal, but the nature of societal reaction makes it criminal. Criminal is the person who has been labelled as such.
What are moral entrepenuers? (Becker)
They are those who lead to moral crusade to change the law so the act is criminalised. They are individuals or groups who can influence gov. This creates a groups ‘outsiders’.
What do the gov do in response to moral entrepenuers? (Becker)
Expand the agencies of social control - police, courts, prisons, etc. They enforce the rule and impose the lables onto offenders.
What leads a person the be labelled? (Becker)
Whether a person is labelled or not depends on: 1. interaction with the police, courts, etc. 2. their appearance, background. 3. circumstances of the offences.
What did Cicourel find out police officers’ decisions to arrest?
Based on typifications - sterotypes.
W/c areas were heavily policied, m/c areas - less polcing = more arrests, confrims the stereotype.
What did the police see as the cause of juvenile delinquency? (Cicourel)
Probation officers saw juvenile delinquency as created by broken houses and poverty. Youths from w/c were seen as more likely re-offend - supported custodial sentences for time.
Why were m/c youths less likely to be arrested? (Cicourel)
As their background does not fit the sterotype. M/c parents used their cultural to negotiate with the police.
What is Cicourel’s view on OCS?
OCS is wrong as it is based on sterotypes.
What was Chambliss’ study?
1973 study - ‘Saints and Roughnecks’
1994 - Rapid Deployment Unit (RDU)
Who were the ‘saints’ and’ roughnecks’? (Chambliss)
‘Saints’ - 8 delinquent m/c boys
‘Roughnecks’ - 6 delinquent w/c boys.
Both commited the same amount of anti-social behaviour.
Why were the saints not seen as delinquent? (Chambliss)
Rarely came in contact with the police - criminal behaious out of town. Saints used cultural capital to get themselves out of touble.
Why were the roughnecks seen as delinquent? (Chambliss)
They were in frequent with the police and commited criminal behaviour in their local area. Led to the self-fuffling prohecy - boys accepted their negative labels.
What happened to the saints and roughnecks? (Chambliss)
Roughnecks - 2 rejected the label and became teachers, 2 became serious criminals, 2 were in frequent contact with the police.
Saints - all graduated from college and went on to professional occupations.
What did the Rapid Deployment Unit study show? (Chambliss)
Study demonstrates the racist policing methods used by Washington DC police when policing black neighourhoods. Police were more aggressive and suspicious of people when working in black neighbourhoods than in white.
What were the police more likely to do to cars driven by black people? (Chambliss)
More likley to stop cars driven by black men, especially new cars - thinking the driver was a drug dealer.
What encourages people to be criminal according to Lemert?
Labrlling individuals as criminal encourages them to be more criminal.
What is primary deviance? (Lemert)
Deviant acts that have not been publicly labelled, e.g.littering. Not labelled by others so have no effect on the person that had commited it.
What is secondary deviance? (Lemert)
Action labelled as criminal by others - result of societal reaction - been labelled as devaint. Once labelled - will only been seen in terms of the label.
What is a master status? (Lemert)
Label rises above all others, e.g. son, brother.
What happens when someone gets a master status? (Lemert?
Becomes an outsider - can’t rejoin society. Self-fulfilling prophecy - live up to master status, more involved with criminal activity - becomes deviant career.
What did Young study?
Drug users in Notting Hill - 1971.
What did the police do to hippies? (Young)
Being a hippie was not about smoking weed, more about fashion and music. Police began to persecute and label hippies - became outsider.
What did hippies do as they were labelled? (Young)
Formed a subculture - distinct clothing, drug use became important. Police started to target hippies - led to more deviance.
Why did the hippies become more deviant? (Young)
Act - not deviant, societal reaction - made it deviant. Labelled as deviant. led to increase in level of deviance.
What did S.Cohen study?
‘Mods and Rockers’
Who were the ‘Mods and Rockers’? (S.Cohen)
Mods - m/c, aspirational w/c, suits, desert boots, parkas, mopeds.
Rockers - w/c, leather jackets, motorbikes, jeans.
What happened that put ‘Mods and Rockers’ into the spotlight? (S.Cohen)
Mods and Rockers had a minor fight with each other - newspaper exaggereated it into a big issue. National newspaper published story - caused more fights between ‘Mods and Rockers’.
What did the media turn ‘Mods and Rockers’ into? (S.Cohen)
Media exaggerated events - turned ‘Mods and Rockers’ into folk devils - groups protayed as bad.
What happened do the ‘Mods and Rockers’ due to the media? (S.Cohen)
Police began to target ‘Mods and Rockers’ - caused more fights. Began to actually see ach other as enemies, enternalised bad label.
What did labelling cause? (S.Cohen)
Created deviance amplification - media labelled teens as trouble makers - start to commit crime.
What does Triplett say about CJS?
CJS can create crime when they reduce crime. CJS has made young people seem criminal.
Why does labelling have implications? (Triplett)
Negative labelling pushes offenders towards a deviant career.
How should deviance be reduced according to Triplett?
Should make and enforce fewer rules for people to break. Decriminalising soft drugs - reduces the number of people with criminal convinctions. Avoid ‘naming and shaming’ offenders - likely to create a perception of them as evil outsiders.
Why is excluding criminals from society negative according to Triplett?
Excluding them from mainstream society will push them into further deviance.
What are the 2 types of shaming according to Braithwaite?
Disintegrative shaming and reintegrative shaming.
What is desintegrative shaming? (Braithwaite)
Both the criminal the act is labelled as bad, the offender is excluded from society.
What is reintegrative shaming? (Braithwaite)
Act is labelled as bad, not the person.
What does reintegrative shaming avoid? (Braithwaite)
Avoids stigmatising the offender but makes them realise they have done something bad. It also encourages others to forgive them - allowing the offender to reintegrate back into society. Prevents them from performing secondary deviance.
What is the evalutation of the Interactionist theory on crime?
+ Draws attention to the importance of labelling and societal reaction.
+ Points out that some people are more likely to be labelled.
- Fails to explain why people commit crime in the 1st place.
- Deterministic - suggests people are passive and do not react against their labels.