What is the Postmodernist theory on crime?
Crime is a social construct based on an outdated metanarrative. It is an expression of a particular view of those with power.
What do Henry and Milovanovic say about crime?
A new conception of crime should be developed and should be based on justice and respect for people’s identities and lifestyles. Crimes should be defined in terms of social harm based on all threats to people’s diverse lifestyles.
What are the 2 types of harm? (Henry and Milovanovic)
Harms of reduction - causing the victim immediate loss or inquiry. These have traditionally been defined as criminal.
Harms of repression - future human development is restricted. They have only recently been defined as criminal.
What had postmodernity caused?
Postmodernity - characterised by a fragmentation of social structure. Where certainties provided by metanarrtatives have been replaced by uncertainty and choice.
What has individualism caused?
Focus on the self and one’s own needs rather then the collective needs of those around us. So the crime lies in the individial and not society. Causes of crime can never be discovered - each crime is motivated by an infinite number of individual causes.
Why is CJS outdated?
Fragmentation of society makes the fromal, organised crime prevention through a centralised CJS - outdated.
How should crime be controlled?
Crime can be controlled through private and informal localised arrangements. Such as private security firms that patrol wealthy neighbourhoods and shopping centres.
What does Foucault argue about the control of crime?
Argues surveillance, e.g. CCTV is increasingly being used to control people’s behaviour, even in private spheres of life. The policing polices are becoming localised and community based.
What is the evaluation for the Postmodernist theory on crime?
+ Explains the widespread use of CCTV.
+ Explains the move in policy towards localised policing methods.
- Fails to explain why most people are law abiding.
- Fails to acknowledge that private localised law enforcement is only avaliabel to the wealthy sections of society.
- Implies that people choose their criminal identity and that this should be celebrated as it’s an expression of their choice.