What are the similarites between Left Realism and Traditional Marxism?
See society as an unequal capitalist one.
What are the differences between Left Realism and Traditional Marxism?
Left Realists are reformists rather than revolutionary socialists. Argue gradual change is the best way to achieve equality rather than the violent overthrow of capitalism. They are that a partical explanation of crime is needed that will lead to the pratical strategies for it to decrease now instead of waiting for revolution. Reject ‘modern Robinhood’, they believe that crime is by the w/c to the w/c. Also belive that poverty is not a cause of crime - 1930s poverty was widespread, but crime was low.
Who commits crime according to Lea and Young? + Why?
OCS is correct - young, male, e/m commit crime. This is due to relative deprivation, subcultures and marginality.
What is relative deprivation?
Subjective feeling of lacking something compared to others.
Why does relative deprivation lead to crime? (Lea and Young)
Capitalism advertises products which raises everyone’s expectations for material possessions. Those who can’t afford products turn to crime.
What is a lethal combination and how does this cause crime? (Lea and Young)
Relative deprivation + individualism = lethal combination.
Individualism is a concern with the self and one’s own individual rights, rather than those of the group. It causs crime by encouraging the pursuit of self-interest at the expense of others.
How to subcultures cause crime? (Lea and Young)
People suffering from relative deprivation form subcultures. These subcultures offer their memebers illegitimate opportunity structures. Agree with functionalists.
How does marginality cause crime? (Lea and Young)
Marginalised groups lack clear goals and organisations to represent them. The unemployed youth are marginalised - gives them resentment and fustration. Express their fustration through crime - violence and rioting.
Is crime positive according to Left Realism?
No - criminals are not leaders of the revolution, they just further victimise the w/c.
What has created relative deprivation in the 21st century? (Young)
Changes in the economy created uncertainty - decrease in traditional w/c jobs. Closure of coal mines, factories - w/c have lost jobs, deepened relative depreivation.
What had further marginalised groups in the 21st century? (Young)
Gov polcies - cut funding - further marginalising groups.
How are the w/c culturally included? (Young)
They live in a media saturated world-bombared with materialistic comsumerist + cultural messages. W/c are aware of material goods society promotes - aware of what they need to ‘fit in’. But can’t afford products as they are economically excluded - turn to crime
Why do the m/c deel relatively deprived in the 21st century? (Young)
They look above and below - feel resented. Compare themselves to others.
What crimes do the m/c commit in the 21st century? (Young)
Hate crime - racism, creates more intolerance - greater demand for harsher sentences.
Why did crime decrease in the early 2000s?
Crime decreased because of Labour policies. Labour created ASBOs - criminalised deviant behviour.
What is the evalutation for the Left Realist theory on crime?
Relative deprivation can’t fullt explain crime - not eeryone who experiences it commits crime.
Interactionists - OCS = social construct, created by the police - stop e/m more.
Focuses on high crime, inner city areas - gives unrepresentative view + makes crime appear as a bigger problem.
Assume all members of society share the goals of materialism - deterministic.