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Opthalmology > Intracranial Pressure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intracranial Pressure Deck (29):
1

What causes raised ICP

increased pressure in the fluid surrounding the brain
increase in pressure in the brain itself

2

Give some examples of pathologis which result in raised intracranial pressure

brain tumour
head injury
hydrocephalus
meningitis
stroke

3

how does the intracranial volume remain constatn

monro kellie hypothosis
ie and increase in one of the cranial cavity compontens (brain, blood and CSF) will result in a decrease in the other components to try and maintain a stable intracranial volume

4

What visual problems occur with raised intracranial pressure

transient blurred vision
double vision
loss of vision
papilloedmea
pupillary changes

5

What is the outermost layer of the meniges

the dura mater

6

what is the sensory nerve supply to the dura mater

CNV

7

What is enclosed in the dural mater

dural venous sinuses

8

What is the menige that adheres to the brain

pia

9

Where is CSF and blood vessels contained

the subarachnoid space

10

where is csf produced

the choroid plexus of the ventricles

11

where is csf reabsorbed

the dural venous sinuses via the arachnoid granulations

12

How can csf be accessed

lumbar puncture at L3/4 or L4/5 IV discs

13

Where does the subarachnoid space end

inferiorly att the level of S2 of the sacrum

14

where is the choroid plexus situites

the lateral and third ventricles

15

Decribe the circulation of CSF

Choroid plexus - lateral venticles- third ventricle- via the cerebral aqueduct to 4th ventricle- subarachnoid space- reabsorbed into the dural venous sinus

16

What are the symptoms of papilloedema

transient visual obscurations
transietn flickering
blurring vision
constriction of the visual fiels
decreased colour perception

17

What will result if the oculomotor nerve is damaged

loss of pupillary light reflex (due to loss of parasympathetic innervation to the eye)
dilated pupil
ptosis
eye will turn inferiolaterally

18

What will result from damage to the trochlear nervw

superior oblique paralysis
eye will move inferomedially due to inferior oblique being unopposed
diplopia when looking down

19

what will result for damage to abducent nerve

paralysis of lateral rectus
eye cannot move laterall in horizontal plane -- results in medial deviation of the eye

20

What is papilloedema

swollen optic discs secondary to raised ICP

21

what do all patients with a bilateral optic disc swelling have

raised ICP due to a space occupying lesion until proven otherwise

22

what happens if disc swelling due to any cause becomes chronic

disc swelling subsides but discs become atrophic and pale
loss of vision and blindness may occur

23

Name the parts of cranial nerve II examination

opthalmoscopy

visual acuity
pupil exam
visual field

24

Why is it important to check blood pressure

malignant hypertension or idiopathic intracranial hypertension are both causes of raised ICP and thus papilloedema

25

What usually causes a sixth nerve palsy

raised intracranial pressur

26

What usually causes a fourth nerve palsy

trauma
or congenital

27

What usually caused a third nerve palsy

aneurysm
(MS also important)

28

What usually caused a third nerve palsy

aneurysm
(MS also important)

29

What is the causes internuclear opthalmoplegia

MS
vascular