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Opthalmology > Vision Loss > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vision Loss Deck (35):
1

Give causes of sudden visual loss

vascualr
retinal detachment
ARMD- wet type
closed angle glaucoma
optic neuritis
stroke

2

What are the symptoms of centrlal retinal artery occlusion

sudden visual loss
profound
painless

3

What are the signs of CRAO

RAPD
pale oedematous retina, thread like retinal vessels

4

What are the causes of CRAO and which is most common

carotid artery disease - most common
emboli from heart

5

How are CRAO patients managed

if presents within 24 hrs- ocular massage
carotid dopples
assess and manage risk factors

6

What is amaurosis fugax

a transient CRAO

7

What are the symptoms of a tranient CRAO

painless visual loss like a curtain coming down
lasts less than five minutes with a full recovery
usually no abnormal examination findings

8

How should transient CRAO patients be managed

refer to TIA clinic
aspirin

9

What are the systemic and ocular causes of central retinal vein occlusion

Systemic= virchow's traid - atherosclerosis, hypertension and hyperviscosity
Ocular causes= reaised intra occular pressure (venous stasis)

10

What are the symptoms of central retinal vein occlusion

sudden vision loss
moderate to sever visual loss

11

What are the sings of crvo

retinal haemorrhages
dilated tortuous veins
disc swelling and macular swelling

12

What is ischaemic optic neuropathy

pcclusion of the optic nerve hear circulation ie occlusion of the posterior ciliary arteries resulting in infarction of the optic nerve head

13

What are the two types of ischaemic optic neuropathy

arteriritc - inflammation
non arteritic- atherosclerosis

Both cause sudden profound vision loss with a swollen disc

14

Describe the pathogenesis of arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy

Giant cell arteritis- medium to large sized arteries become inflammed and lumen of arteries becomes occlued (PCA) resulting in vision loss due to ischaemia of the optic nerve head

15

What are the visual symptoms of arteritic ischaemic neuropathy

sudden vision loss
profound blindness
irreversible blindness

16

What are the sympotms of giant cell temporal arteritis

headache
jaw claudication
scalp tenderness
tender enlarged scalp arteries
amayrosis fugax
malaise
high ESR, PV and CRP
biopsy for diagnosis

17

How can you prevent bilateral blindness in a patient with arteritic ischaemic neuropathy due to giant cell arthertisi

immediate steroids

18

What can give you a vitreous haemorrhage

bleeding from abnormal vessels eg retinal vein occlusion or diabetic retinopathy
Bleeding occurs from retinal vessels eg with a retinal tear

19

What are the symptoms of a vitrous haemorrhage

loss of vision
floaters

20

What are the signs of vitreous haemorrhage

loss of red reflex
No RAPD

21

What are symptoms of retinal detachment

painless loss of vision
sudden onset of flashes/floaters

22

What signs may be present in retinal detachment

RAPD
tear on opthalmoscopy

23

What are the two types of ARMD

dry (gradual vision loss)
wet (sudden)

24

What is wet ARMD

new blood vessels grow under retina - leakage causes build up of fluid/blood and eventually scarring

25

What are the symptoms and signs of wet ARMD

rapid central visual loss
distortion (metmorphosia)
sign- haemorrhage/exudate

26

How is wet ARMD treated

anti VEGF treatment - prevent new blood vessels growing

27

Give the causes of gradual vision loss

Cataract
ARMD (dry)
Refreactive error
Diabetic retinopathy
Inherited disease eg retinitis pigmentos
Glaucoma
Acces to eye clinic Non urgert
'CARDIGAN'

28

Name some causes of cataractd

age
congenital
traumatic
diabetes
drug induced (steroids)

29

What is the treatment of cataracts

management is surgical removal with intra ocular lens implat if patient is symptomatic

30

What are the symptoms of dry ARMD

gradual decline in vision
central vision missing

31

What are the signs of Dry ARMD

drusen- build up of waste products below retinal pigment epithelium
RPE changes- atrophy/hyperplasia

32

What is short sighted

myopia

33

What is long sighted

hypermetropia

34

What is an astigmatism

irregular corneal curvature

35

What is presbyopia

loss of accommodation with aging