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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (30):
1

What is the epithelium

hydrophobic/lipophilic

2

What is the stoma

hydrophillic/lipophobic

3

What drugs penetrate the epithelium

lipid soluble

4

What drugs penetrate the stoma

water soluble

5

name a drug which has both lipophilic and hydrophilic properties

chloramphenicol

6

What can reduce the hydrophobic nature of the epithelium

ocular inflammation

7

What makes steroids more hydrophobic

alcohol or acetate

8

what makes steroids more hydrophilic

phosphate

9

What drug will penetrate the uninflammed cornea well

prednisoline acetate - hydrophobic so penetrates epithelium well
used post operatively

10

What steroid will now penetrate the uninflammed cornea and why

prednisolone phosphate because it is hydrophilic
used in corneal disease or when a low dose steroid is required

11

What drug can aid the corneal penetration of some drugs

benzalkonium

12

What drug is used to lower IOP in glaucoma

bimatoprost

13

how does chloramphenicol work

stops bacterial protein being made by inhibiting peptidyl transferase enzyme
bacteriocidal for strep and haemophilus
bacteriostatic for staph

14

what are the side effects of choramphenicol

allergy
aplastic anaemia
grey baby syndrome

15

what antibiotics inhibit nucleic acid synthesis

quinolones eg ofloxacin

16

What antibiotics inhibit cell wal synthesos

penicillins and cephalosporins

17

how does zovirax work and when is it used

inhibits viral DNA synthesis
used for dendritic ulcers in viral keratitis

18

When are steroids used

post op cataracts
uveitis
to prevent rejection of corneal graft

19

Name some medication used to treat glaucoma

prostanoids eg latanoprots
Beta blockers eg timolol, betaxolol, levobunolol, carteolol
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors eg topical - dorzolamide or systemic- acetazolamide
Alph adrenergic agonisits eg brimonidine
Parasympathetomimetric eg pilocarpine

20

how do local anaesthetics work on the eye

blocks sodium channels and impedes nerve conduction

21

When are local anasthetics used

FB removal
tonometry
corneal scraping
comfort

22

What is tonometry used to measure

IOP

23

What is the most commonly used diagnostic dye and when is it used

fluorescein
corneal abrasion
tonometry
diagnosisng nasolcrimal duct obsurction
angiography

24

Name two mydriatics

tropicamide
cyclopentolate

25

Name two side effects of mydriatics

blurring
closed angle glaucoma

26

Name two sympathomimetrics

phenylephrine
atropine

27

What do sympathomimetics do

act on sympathetic system
cause pupil to dialate
do not effect ciliary muscle

28

what drug can constrict visual fields

vigabatrin

29

what can cause optic neuropahty

ethambutol

30

what causes maculopathy

chloroquine