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Opthalmology > Microbiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (44):
1

What is conjunctivitis

inflammation of the conjunctivia

2

What is keratitis

corneal inflammation

3

What describes inflammation of the entire globe

endophthalmitis

4

what commonly causes bacterial conjunctivitis in neonates

staph aureus
neisseria gonorrhaeae
chlamydia thrachomatis

5

How should all cases of neonatal bacterial conjunctivitis be dealt with

refer to opthalmology

6

What are common causes of bacterial conjunctivitis in general

staph aureus
strep pneumoniae
h,influenzae

7

What tends to cause conjunctivitis in children

h. influenzae

8

What is the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis

Swab
topical antibiotics vie drop or ointment

9

What topical antibiotic is used to treat bacterial conjunctivitis and how often is it administered

chloramphenical
four times daily

10

What group of patients should chloramphenicol be avoided in

aplastic anaemia

11

What is the most common contaminatnt of a topical antibiotic bottle

pseudomonas

12

What causes conjunctivitis in contact lense wearers

acanthamoeba
pseudomonas aeruginosa

13

Name three causes of viral conjunctivitis

adenovirus
herpes simplex
herpes zoster

14

What does adenovirus conjunctivitis usually present with

chemosis
lip oedema
palpable pre auricular lymph node

15

What type of conjunctivitis ishould be suspected in young people with bilateral conjunctivitis

chlamydial
(usually more chronic history)

16

What is caused by chlamydial conjuncticitis

subtarsal scarring

17

what is often associated with a bacterial keratititis

hypopyon

18

how is bacterial keratitis managed

Need admission for hourly drops
Daily review
Usually in association with other corneal pathology or contact lens wear

19

what causes viral keratitis

herpes
adenovirus

20

what forms in herpetic keratis

dendritic ulcer

21

why should you not treat herpetic keratitis with steroids

corneal melt and perforation of the cornea will occur

22

what is important about adenovirus keratitis/conjunctivitis

it is contagious

23

What other eye infections can result in a hypopyon

fungal

24

what is the history usually like for fungal keratitis

trauma from vegetation

25

What are the symptoms of orbital cellulitis

painful particularly when moving the eye
proptosis
paranasal sinusiits
pyrexia

26

What scan should be done in patients with orbital cellulitis and why

CT scan to identify orbital abscesses

27

what causes orbital cellulitis

staph
strep
coliforms
haemophilus influenzae
anaerobes

28

when can endopthalmitis occur

post surgery or can be endogenous

29

What are the symptoms of endopthalmitis

very very painful
red eye
decreasing vision
sight threatening

30

what organisms usually cause endopthalmitis

commensals
most common is Staph epidermidis

31

what is the treatment of endopthalmitis

intravitreal amikacin and vancomycin
plus topical antibiotics

32

What causes chorioretinitis

CMV in AIDs
Toxoplasma gondii (protazoan)
Toxocara canis (worm) (parasite)

33

How are keratitis diagnosed

corneal scrapes

34

How is endopthalmitis diagnosed

aqueous/vitreous humour for cultur

35

When is microscopy used

acanthamoeba

36

When is serology used

toxoplasma and toxocara

37

what three drugs can treat bacterial conjunctivitis

chloramphenicol
fusidic acid
gentamicin

38

what bacteria cannot be treated by chloramphenicol and what should be used instead

pseudomonas
treat with gentamicin (gram negatives)

39

what do you give for chlamydial conjunctivitis

topical oxytetracycline
(adults need azithromycin for genital chlamydia infection)

40

what do you give for herpetic conjunctivits

topical or oral antivirals (aciclovir)

41

how do you treat bacterial keratiis

either a 4 quinolone (ofloxacin)
or gentamicin and cefuroxime

42

what bacteria does ofloxaxin treat

most gram negatives but NOT strep pneumoniae

43

what will gentamycin and cefuroxime treat

most gram positive and gram negativ organisms

44

what is dacrocystitis

inflammation of the lacrimal sac