Intro to Anemia 2 Flashcards Preview

Heme/Lymph > Intro to Anemia 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro to Anemia 2 Deck (17):
1

CBC Parameters
MCV

Mean cell volume
Useful in differential diagnosis of anemia (microcytic, normocytic, and macrocytic)

2

MCH

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin
Average amount of hemoglobin per RBC

3

MCHC

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
Measure of "chromicity" of RBCs
Hypochromic, Hyperchromic

4

RDW

Red cell distribution width
Measure of variability of red cell volume
Useful to separate anisocytotic anemias (Fe deficiency) from non-anisocytotic anemias (anemia or chronic disease)

5

Weakness/malaise, easy fatiguability

Tissue hypoxia

6

Marrow expansion with potential bony abnormalities

Increase RBC production

7

Pallor

Shunting of blood to vital areas

8

Tachycardia; cardiac ischemia (severe)

Increased CO

9

Dyspnea on exertion

Increased pulmonary function

10

Anemia of blood loss (acute)

Initially no anemia by CBC despite decreased blood volume
Anemia develops as fluid enters vascular space to restore blood volume --> dilutes cellular elements
Retic count increases after 2-3 days and peaks after 7-10 days

11

Anemia of blood loss (chronic)

Initially no anemia b/c the bone marrow is able to compensate
Slight reticulocytosis
Eventually develop Fe deficiency anemia

12

What is the blue-tinged cytolasm of reticulocytes caused by and what is this called?

Residual RNA
Polychromasia

13

What does the reticulocyte % help you differentiate between?

Anemias that have decreased RBC production and those with marrow response to blood loss or increased RBC destruction

14

What are some examples of pathologic states that have ineffective erythropoiesis?

Iron deficiency
Megaloblastic anemia
Myelodysplastic disorders

15

What are some things that may lead to a decreased RBC production?

Proliferation defect
Absolute decrease in marrow mass of erythroid precursors

16

What are some stem cell defects with adequate EPO?

Congenital: Diamond-Blackfan syndrome (pure cell aplasia), Fanconi's anemia (pan-aplastic)
Acquired: idiopathic, drugs, autoimmune, infections

17

What are some general features of hemolysis?

Reticulocytosis, increased bilirubin (heme metabolism), increased LDH released from destroyed RBCs, decreased haptoglobin,