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Flashcards in Intro to Hematology Deck (57):
1

what is anemia?

decrease in the circulating red cell mass

2

what can anemia cause?

tissue hypoxia

3

Etiology of Anemia

blood loss, accelerated rbc destruction, decreased rbc production

4

Anemia: Morphology of RBCs

rbc size and MCV (measured corpuscular volume)

5

RBC count

# rbsc per unit volume of blood

6

hemoglobin measured

hgb per volume of blood
Mean Cell Hemoglobin Concentration

7

hemaocrit

packed rbc volume
(spun)

8

Rericulocyte count

% immature RBcs in peripheral blood

9

normal reticulocyte %

.5 - 2.5%

10

what causes acute blood loss/

trauma

11

Site of RBC production
Embryo:
Fetus:
Kid:

Yolk Sac
Liver
Bone Marrow

12

Regulation of RBC production

tissue hypoxia induced the production of erythropoetin by kidney

13

Chronic Blood Loss

slight reticulocye develops
* no anemia

14

Most common nutrutiional defiency worldwide

iron deficiency

15

what is iron defiency

defect in hb production (hypochromic) rbcs

16

'what causes iron defiency

chronic blood loss

17

how does iron get absorbed into marrow?

bound to plasma transferin and incorporated into hemoglobin

18

lab test for iron defiency

blood smear, serum iron, serum ferritin, serum transferrin)

19

Accelerated RBC Destruction

inheritired/intrinsic (enzyme disorder)
Extreinsic (antibody)

20

signs of increased RBC production

reticulocytosis
Erythroid hyperplasia of marrow

21

signs of increased rbc destruction

^ LDH
^ serum unconjugated bilrubin
^increased fecal urobilnogen
decreased haptoglobin

22

hemolysis
* intrinsic

hemoglobin disorder, membrane defect
enzyme defiencies

inherited

23

hemolysis
* extrinisic

immune hemolysis
traumatic hemolysis
parasitic hemolysis

acquired

24

what predominates in most forms of hemolytic anemia

extravascular hemolysis

25

final common pathway of extravascular hemolysis

decreased RBA deformability

26

inheritred enzyme disorder (hemolytis)

g6pd deficiency

27

G6pd deficiency

x-linked recessive (males)
rbc vulnerable to oxidative stress

28

hemoglobin disorders

structurally abnormal hgb (sickle cell)
strucutrally normal (thalassemia)

29

structure of hemoglobin

tetramer of 4 globin chains

30

structural variants (disorder hemoglobin)

single amino acid substituion in chain)

31

hemolysis due to imbalance in globin chain production

Thalassemias

32

excess globin chains precipitate and damage rbcs

thalassemias

33

sickle cell disease

point mutation in beta-globin

34

thalaseemias

imbalance in globin chain production

35

Traumatic Hemolysis
DIC

disseminated intravascular coagulation

36

decreased rba production

nutrutional defiencies

37

causes Megaloblastic anemia

* various drugs
* B 12 defiency
*abnorally large erythroid precursors

38

Causes of B12 deficiency

impaired absorption (pernicious anemia)
inadequte diet

39

Von Willebrand disease

decreased levels of qualaive defects of vWF

40

Hemophilla a

F VIII defiency

41

hemophillia B

F IX deficiency

42

hemo a and b (linked)?

x linked recessive

43

acquired bleeding disorder

liver disease, anticoagulant therpay, factor inhibtors, DIC

44

hereditary bleeding disorder

clotting factor deficiency

45

vessel wall abnormality

bleeding disorder

46

decreased platelet #

bleeding disordeer

47

abnormaility in clotting factor

bleeding disorder

48

coagulation test

Prothrombin Time
Partial Thromboplastin Time

49

Prothrombin Time

test for extrinsic and common arms of clotting cascade

50

PAartial Thromboplastin Time

test for the intrinsic and common pathways of the clotting cascade

51

normal hemostatic response

blood vessels
plaelets
clotting factors (in plasma)

52

platelet plug

platelet adhesion
platelet activation
platelet aggregation

53

firbin plug

requires generation of thrombin via activiation of coagualtion cascade

54

intravascular cell destruction

results from breach of membrane in ciruclation

55

extravascular rbc destrcution

ingestion by macrophage (spleen) in response to damaged rbc

56

what causes hemoglobin to denature and precipitae in cytoplasm as heinz bodies?

g6pd defiency

57

decrease in marrow mass erythoid rbc precursors

aplastic anemia