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Flashcards in Pathology of Neoplasia Deck (67):
1

Tumor

non-specific term referring to a swelling

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neoplasm

new growth

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cancer

refers to a group of neoplasms infiiration adjacent itssue

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neoplasm from arise form?

cells that are actively proliferation

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rate of growth benign

slow

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rate of growth of malignant

usually rapid

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benign (spread_

localized

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malignant (spread)

transfered via lymphatics, blood vessels

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benign (boundaiies)

circumference, encapsualted

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malignant (boundaies)

irregular

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malignant (relationship to surronding tissue)

ivades and destroyrs

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benign (relationship to surronding tissue)

merely compresses)

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benign (effects)

pressure on vessels, ubes, nerves

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malignant (effects)

destroys structures and remove of tumor will not restore function

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irregular, ill-defind margins are typical for

carcinomas

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benign tumors exhibit

expansive growth

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tumors are comprised of?

parenchyma (tumor cells) and supproting tissue (stroma)

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benign tumors are identified by the suffix

oma

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malignant epithelial suffix

carcinoma

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malignant mesenchymal suffic

sacroma

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benign
- fibrous
fat tissue
smooth mucke
striated muscle
bone
cartilage

firboma
lipoma
leiomyoma
rhabdomyoma
osteoma
chondroma

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malignant
-fibrous
fat tissue
smooth muscle
striated muscle
bone
cartilage

fibrosarcoma
liposarcoma
leiomyosacroma
rhadomyosarcoma
osteosarcoma
chondrosacroma

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finger like growth secondary descriptor

papillary (fibro-vascular core)

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big water balloon, translucent

cystic

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mucinous

tumor makes a lot of mucus(matrix)

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what can mucinous or colloid cause?

dessemination of tumor cells if ruptured

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phases of malignant tumor growth

malignant change in tumor cell
cell growth
local invasion
distant metastasis

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dysplasia

increased mitosis==>Disordered development

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epithlial neoplasia

epithlieal tumors origniate as local dysplastic cell proliferation

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when neoplastic cells occupy full thickness of an epithelium

carcinoma in situ

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invasion is the

process of a malignant epitheliel tumor gorwing beyond its basement membrane

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penetration of the basmene membrane may give tumor cells

vascular and lymphatic access

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invasion of BM

1) new receptor interact with BM
2) secondary messenger acively activated producing diff. enzymes -->break down BM

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Carcinoma -->

lymphaics

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lymphoma-->

vasculature

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Well differentiated

low differentiation-->tumor looks much like the cell of origin

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poorly differentiated

high variation-->tumors have little resemblance to cell of origin

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anaplasia

tumor cells that lack differentiation

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rapid prolfieration marked by numerous mitoses

anaplasia

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abnormal nuclear morphology

anaplsia

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tumor grading specifics

grading system depon on tumor type

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local effects of neoplasms

swelling
irritation and pain
vascular effects
obstruction of hollow viscera
infection
involvment of adjacent vital structures
infection

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cachexia

general wasting

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system tumor effects - hormonal

excess or reduction directly cuased by tumor

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hypercoaguable state

DIC
endocarditis
migrating intravascular thrombophlebitis

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evaluation of neoplasm

serum protein (tumor) markers)

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alphafeto protein marker

hepatocellular carcinoma

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carcinoembryonic antigen

colon carinoma

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prostate specific antigen

prostate cancer

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chroionic gonadotropin

choriocarcinoma

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placental alkaline phosphatase

seminoma

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more reliable prognostically than grading

TNM Staging

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T =

tumor size

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To=

occult tumor

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Tis=

carcinoma in situ

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N=

number and distribution of lymph node metastasis

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M=

distant non-lymphoid metastasis

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T1 =

tumor less than 2 cm max dimension

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T2=

5 cm 2cm

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T3=

tumor > 5cm

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T4=

any size tumor with direct extension to chest wall or skin

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N0=

no node met

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N1=

movable nodes, ipsilateral

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N2=

ipsilateral nodes fixed to each other or adjacent strucutre

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N3=

ipsilateral internal mamrmary node

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M0=

no metastasis

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M1=

distant metastasis