Introductory Lecture Flashcards Preview

BMS 242 Core Physiology and Pharmacology > Introductory Lecture > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introductory Lecture Deck (65)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the main component of the cell membrane

proteins

2

What is the function of the cell membrane

divide intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments

3

Where is the sodium concentration low

intracellular fluid

4

Where is the potassium concentration low

extracellular fluid

5

Why do cells have a high level of phosphate in the intracellular fluid of the cell

ATP

6

What is an important function of calcium

secondary messenger

7

Where is calcium concentration low

intracellular fluid

8

What is sodium important for the function of

electrically excitable cells

9

Which ions concentration can vary between cell types

chloride

10

Which has more proteins - plasma or interstitial fluid

plasma

11

What is an important pH buffer

bicarbonate

12

What is a positively charged ion called

cation

13

Give examples of anions

phosphate, chloride, proteins and bicarbonate

14

Why is transport of solutes and ions important

critical for function of all cells

15

How many pathways of transport are there

3

16

What are the three pathways of transport

diffusion, transport proteins, and endocytosis

17

Example of simple diffusion

oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs

18

What do transport proteins move across the membrane

small molecules and ions

19

Name an example of exocytosis

release of neurotransmitters at the synapse

20

What are the three basic types of protein transporters

channel, carrier and pump

21

True or False - channels are NOT gated

false

22

Name an example of a carrier transporter

sodium glucose co transport protein

23

Name an example of a pump

sodium potassium ATPase

24

Which is a high energy transport protein - channels, carriers or pumps

Pumps

25

What allows pump transport proteins to function

hydrolysation of ATP

26

which transporters are passive

channels and carriers

27

What do channels and carriers require in order to work

driving force

28

What sets up the driving force for channels and carriers

sodium potassium ATPase

29

TRUE or FALSE - sodium moves against its electrochemical gradient into the cell

true

30

True or False - movement of ions by ATPases is fast

false

31

Why is the movement of ions by ATPases slow

ATP requires extra processing

32

How does binding occur in active transport

hydrolysis of ATP leads to conformational change

33

Give an example of a ubiquitous transport protein

sodium potassium ATPase

34

Describe the structure of the sodium potassium ATPase

tetramer with four subunits - 2 alpha, 2 beta

35

How many genes code for the sodium potassium ATPase

2

36

what is the role of the sodium potassium ATPase

maintain a low intracellular sodium concentration, small contribution to resting membrane potential

37

electrogenic definition

charge generating or carry

38

True or False - ALL ion channels are electrogenic

true

39

what can a driving force be

conc grad, potential grad, or both

40

Name some carriers undergo facilitated diffusion

NKCC2, Sodium glucose co transport protein, NaPII

41

Example of secondary active transport protein

sodium glucose co-transport protein

42

meaning of secondary active transport protein

dependant on an ATP process, doesnt use ATP itself

43

Effect of blocking sodium potassium ATPase

inhibition of sodium and glucose into the cell

44

Why does the rate of uptake plateau in the saturation curve

maximum number of transport proteins at full capacity

45

Describe a symporter

transports two ions in the same direction

46

Describe an antiporter

transports two ions in different directions

47

How can you study ion channel function

studying the current generated by ions moving through ion channels

48

Describe the movement of ions through ion channels

through a pore down an electrochemical gradient

49

Which is the fastest transport protein

ion channels

50

How are ion channels divided

selectivity

51

What did Nehr and Sakman do

patch clamp technique - nobel prize

52

What does the patch-clamp technique allow

directly measure the function of ion channels

53

What are the components of the patch clamp technique

silver chlorided electrode, salt solution

54

What is cell attached configuration

high resistance seal between membrane and glass

55

What does the patch clamp technique allow

identification of channels in a membrane, their regulation and their function

56

what can the patch clamp technique allow us to study

mutations

57

What does whole cell configuration allow you to measure

ion flow through channels on the whole cell

58

What does whole cell configuration allow

clamping of the potential membrane of the cell

59

What does open probability vary from

0 to 1

60

What does 0 open probability mean

channel is closed all the time, never opens

61

What is the effect of regulating the open probability

regulates current flow

62

Name the structural families of the channels

Ach receptors, voltage gated potassium channel family, voltage gated sodium spanning unit, Kir, CFTR Cl- channel

63

Which structural families do not have a pore domain

Ach receptor, CFTR Cl- channel

64

Describe the structure of the K+ channel

crystal structure, 4 subunits with central pore down the middle

65

How many ions are in the K+ channel pore at one time

always more than one